Wars, Colonialism and Nation-States in the East and Southeast Asian Context

【Goals of the course】
This class is about wars in East Asia and Southeast Asia, covering from the late 19th century to the 21st century. Students are expected to acquire  the basic understanding of modern Asian history. Each of the student is expected to form his or her perspective on the related topic of interest.

【Overview of the course】
History is not really about memorization. It enables us to think how each one of us should perceive the world and check on whether ones perspective is appropriate. Sadly, no one in this age is beyond nationalism. The best we can do is to reflect upon the stance each one of us takes. Although this is a lecture class, I do not mean to preach how you should think, but simply provide food for thought, so to speak.

20th century, Southeast and East Asia, Gender, War, War Crimes

(1) Guidance, Optimism and Pessimism on the 21st century
(2) (Late 19th century to 1910s) Imperialism and Colonialism: theoretical background, colonial wars
(3) (1910s to 1930s) Formation of Colonial Society: racism and consumerism, class divide, mass mobiliation, the coming of communism
(4) (1930s) Crisis of Colonialism: Proto-Independent State, Colonial Surveillance State, War in China [Nanjing Incident]
(5) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War I: Sexual violence and Military “Comfort Women”
(6) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War II: Mobilization [Forced Labor, Korean BC Class War Criminals]
(7) (1940s-1990s) The US occupation and the Rebirth of Japan [Tokyo Trial, SF peace treaty, Japan’s compensation scheme]
(8) (1940s-1972) East Asia under U.S. Hegemony: Base Politics, the Korean War and Okinawa and Taiwan
(9) (1940s-1965) Decolonization and Statebuilding in Southeast and East Asia: Different types of decolonization and its memories
(10) (1940s-1980s) Global History of the Indochina War[Memories and Activism of the Americans and Koreans]
(11) (1970s-1990s) Long Democraticization I: Southeast and East Asia and the Rise of China
(12) (1970s-1990s) Long Democraticization II: Civic Activism in East Asia [Postwar Individual Compensation Movements, Colonial Responsibilities] ; Low-intensity Warfare in Southeast Asia: terrorism, war on terror and securitization.
(13) Students’ presentation
April 21. (1) Guidance, Optimism and Pessimism in the 21st century

(1). Optimism vs. Pessimism
Optimism – The present is better than the past.
Pessimism – What happened will repeat itself, esp. tragic events.

Modernity – Optimism
Two essential characteristics of modernity — industrial revolution and nationalism

(2). Industrial Revolution – as a prime example of Optimism
Big question 1: Why did industrial revolution happen in Britain first?
Big question 2: Why is it that some people could repeat what the British did while others failed?
The Williams’ Thesis: Europe became industrialized due to its exploitation of Latin America, aka its colonies.
Ex. Drinking Tea => Communication => Democracy
Wallerstain’s World System: a. capitalism as one system, b. Core – Semi Periphery – Periphery
=> The earlier and faster a nation achieves industrialization, the stronger it is.

(3). Nationalism
Historical continuity: ethnos – proto-nation – modern nation (Antony Smith)
ethnos – sharing the same religion, tradition, language, …
Post-industrial worldwide phenomenon: Overlapping of national community and political community (Ernest Gellner)
Imagined Community: post-religion, national language (= print capitalism) (B. Anderson)

(4) East Asia and Southeast Asia
East Asia – Chinese character as scripts, confucianism (Heaven), Trade System: Middle Kingdom – Tributary States – Barbarians.
Southeast Asia – “The Lands below the Winds,” Heavy influences of the Indian and Chinese civilizations, multi-ethnic by definition, expansion of Islam from the 15th c.

(5) Important questions:
– Which of the premodern states was more deeply embedded in the Chinese tributary system?
– How strong was the national identity of premodern ethnos?
– How united was the premodern state? The more unity the better?

【Memory】Famous photos of the royalty in the early 20th century from Encyclopedia Britannica
Rama V (Chulalongkorn)  -Thailand
Emperor Meiji -Japan
Empress Cixi -China
Kojong -Korea

(On optimism)
Pinker, Steven. The Better Angels of Our Nature : Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Viking, 2011.

(On nationalism)
Anderson, Benedict R. O’G. Imagined Communities : Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. and extended ed. London ; New York: Verso, 1991.
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. New Perspectives on the Past. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.
Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism : Theory, Ideology, History. Key Concepts. 2nd ed ed. Cambridge: Polity, 2010.

(Capitalism and World System)
Wallerstein, Immanuel Maurice. The Modern World-System. Text ed. 2 vols. New York: Academic Press, 1976. [4 Volumes]
川北稔『砂糖の世界史』岩波書店, 1996.
—『世界システム論講義 : ヨーロッパと近代世界』筑摩書房, 2016.

(Chinese Tributary System)
尾形勇,岸本美緒 『中国史』山川出版社, 1998.
三谷博,並木頼寿,月脚達彦『大人のための近現代史』東京大学出版会, 2009.

(Southeast Asia)
Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450-1680. 2 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.

Opinion: This Has Been the Best Year Ever by Nicholas Kristof
New York Times, Dec. 28, 2019

Walter Banjamin, “On the Concept of Time”

April 28. (2) (Late 19th century to 1910s) Imperialism and Colonialism: theoretical background, colonial wars

1. Imperialism – Lenin’s defition
Lenin, Imperialism

2. Nation States and Colonial States

A Nation States
Based on nationalism
i (sovereignty): National sovereignty
rule by many – democracy/anarchy
rule by few – oligarchy or Democratic Centralism
rule by one – dictatorship

ii (legality): Constitution – Public Laws – Private Laws
Constitution as the higest law of the land — constraints upon other laws

iii (membership and equality): Equality among its citizens, i.e. the formal members of the nation-state
Usually a two-tier system: citizens with full rights and foreigners with limited rights
Anti-thesis to universal human rights

B Colonial state
Based on raw power of militarism
i: Colonial sovereignty guranteed by other colonial empires
rule by few – people from the metropolitan state (+ local elites)
rule by one – Governor General
Almost always faces challenges from below for the expansion of political participation

ii: Administrative Order
– No constitutional rights. The metropolitan constitution does not apply to the colony.
– Sometimes, colonial assemblies get established with constraints. There is always an upper authority of Governor-General.

III: Racism (ethno-centrism) at the core
– By definition, the metropolitan race (Americans, Japanese, Europeans) cannot be equal to the conquared race (Filipinos, Koreans, Africans)

C: A variety of colonial states
– White settlement colonies
– Migration colonies of Latin America
– The usual type: the local population is much more populous (the metro polititan population from 0.5% to 5%)

[Question] Where does racism come from, colonialism or nationalism? Can we find any positive value in the “Colonial State”?

3. East Asian and Southeast Asian States
A Their colonial relations

The Philippines:
Brunei Darussalam:
East Timor:

East Asia
SE Asia

B Why is it that Japan and Thailand escaped colonialism?

Premise: Nationalism + Industrial Revolution
A Japan
– Semi-diarchy rule (Shogunate + Emperor, 1615?-1868)
– Japan’s modernization as “restoration” of the imperial rule
– Economic difficulty in the 19th Century and agrarian uprisings
– Combination of centralization and decentralization (Bakufu – Han – Sankinkotai)
– Rigid status system (Samurai-Farmers-Artisan-Merchants and untouchables) => Abolition thereof the untouchable status in 1872
– Weak or modified Confucian ideology, the rise of nationlist studies (Kokugaku from the late 18th century)

B. Korea
– Choson Dynasty (1392-1897)
– Economic difficulty due to climate change(18th century) and agrarian uprisings in the 19th century
– Self-awareness as the center of the Confucian ideology (Mythology of Kija Choson 기자조선(箕子朝鮮))
– Influences by the outside states, China, Russia and Japan => internal disputes
– Weak legitimacy of the King (Emperor after 1897)

C China
– Qing Dynasty as Manchu rule (1636-1912)
– Powerful local bureaucrats and their own Westernization movement
– A long history and strong sense of their own middle
– A rather advanced standard of living in the late 18th century (More than 100 mil. people)
– Economic turmoil in the beginning of the 19th century

D Continental Southeast States
– Main ethnic groups (Viet, Khmer, Lao, Thai, Burman) and state formation: (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar)
– Theravāda Buddihist states
– Relatively short kingdoms (Chakri Kingdom (Thai), 1782-; Konbaung Kingdom (Konbaung) 1752-)
– Clearer break away from China in the case of Thailand
– Kings and the success of modernizing efforts:  Chulalongkorn (Thailand) or Mindon Min (Myanmar)

E Archipelagic Southeast States
– Trade network and port states
– Longer engagement of Western powers: Malacca (Portugese, 1511-); Jakarta (Dutch, 1619-); Manila (1571-)
– Migration from India and China
– Trade of staple crops, esp. rice

4. Turn-of-the-Century Wars
Why did it become so brutal? Filipino-American War (1898-1902), Agrarian Wars under Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
– Better weapons (rifles, horses)
– Better military organizations
– No cultural commonality, no way to reconcile.
– Mass killings

【Question】Did colonialism mean the same for East and SE Asia? Is one colony treated better than others? If so, what were the determinant factors?

【Memory】 Nishikie as ideological tools.
The fall of Pyong Yang
“Liberation” of Korea
Kim O-kyun 金玉均


(On imperialism and colonialism)
岡田泰平「植民地主義と向き合う」東京大学教養学部歴史学部会編『歴史学の思考法』岩波書店, 2020
レーニン著、角田安正訳『帝国主義論』光文社, 2006.
Lenin, Imperialism

(On Japan, Korea and China)
Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.
岸本美緒『東アジアの「近世」』山川出版社, 1998.
糟谷憲一『朝鮮の近代』山川出版社, 1996.
趙景達『近代朝鮮と日本』岩波書店 2012.
井上勝生『明治日本の植民地支配 : 北海道から朝鮮へ』岩波書店, 2013.

(On Southeast Asia)
Reid, Anthony. Imperial Alchemy : Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
May 5. (3) (1910s to 1930s) Formation of Colonial Society: racism and consumerism, class divide, mass mobiliation, the coming of communism

1. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) as World War Zero
A. Control over Korea
– Japan’s rationale: to get rid of the Russian and Chinese influence, to give Korea “Independence”
– Russia’s rationale: Traditional Eastward expansion, the Siberian railways, unfrozen ports
B. Historical Issues
a) The Sino-Japanese War (1884-85)
– The Treaty of Shimonoseki: 1. Independence of Korea, 2. Taiwan and Liaodong Peninsula (遼東半島)are given to Japan, 3. Opening of ports, indemnities, etc,
– The Triple Intervention by Russians, French and Germans.  Japan returned Liaodong Peninsula. => Japanese grievance against the Russians.
Map China

b) The Boxer Rebellion in China (1900)
– Pro-Qing Anti-Christian bottom-up movement at the turn of the century
– In response to casualities of some diplomats, troops sent by major powers:
British Empire, Russia, Japan, France, German Empire, United States, Italy, Austria-Hungary
– British – the Boar War, United States – the Filipino-US War, Japan – the biggest dispatch to Beijing.  The Japanese troops stayed on and even increased until 1945.

c) Imperial Alliances
– Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902-1921): Against the Southward Movement of the Russians, Crimea and Afghanistan as other points of conflict; British in Komundo (巨文島)
– Katsura-Taft Secret Treaty (Aug. 1905): Recognizing Japan’s control of Korea and America’s control of  the Philippines.
– The Treaty of Portsmouth (Sep. 1905): Sponsored by American President Theodore Roosevelt, Manchuria became a sphere of influence of the Japanese, The Russians retreated from Korea, little indemnity to the Japanese.
– Franco-Japanese Agreement (1907): France recognized Japan’s supremacy over Korea and Manchuria and Japan France’s commercial interests in Southern China and its territorial expansion in French Indochina.
– Russo-Japanese Agreement (1907): As a result of improving British-Russian relations. Mutual recognition of Northeasten Asia as sphere of influence. => Getting rid of other powers from intervening into Northeastern China.
=> Imperial stability.
– Colonization of Korea (1910): Japanese Council (1904), Deprivation of foreign relations and Japanese Protectorate (Nov. 1905), Hiring of Japanese Bureaucrats (1907).

2. International Politics and Nationalist Struggles
a) Perceptions on Japan
– “Yellow Peril” — White vs. Yellow; Russians and German (esp. Wilhelm II) => Japan’s appeal “Bushido” as chivalry code, i.e. civilized; Winning Theodore Roosevelt on their side (although TR believed in the superiority of Anglo-Saxons)
– Constitutional Monarchy and Freedom of Religion (Japan) vs. Traditional Emperor with limited freedom (Russia)
– Japan as Light of Asia — Immediately after Japan’s victory, the Arabs, Turks, Filipinos, Indians, Burmese, Vietnamese, Polish, Hungarians …
– Japan as Asia’s Public Enemy — Chinese and Koreans, but others followed suit in the latter part of the 1910s. Ex. Phan Boi Chau => Mixed perceptions on Japan. Ex. Ricarte

b) Nationalists
-Networking of Nationalists: Phan’s Tonzu東遊 Movement, Chinese Reformists Sun Yat Sen (孫文) and Liáng Qǐchāo (梁啓超), Filipino Revolutionary Mariano Ponce
– Nationalist grievances at the international scene: Filipino Sixto Lopez in the Paris Treaty (1898); Hong Kong Junta (Goverment-in-exile of the Filipino revolutionaries); The Hague Peace Conference and Korean delegates (1907).
– Islamic identity as national identity

c) Ideological divides
-Christianity vs. Islam. Ex. The Achenese War (1873-1912), Indonesia; Massacres Bud Dajo (1906), Jolo, Sulu, and Bud  Bagsak (1913),  Mindanao, the Philippines. => Islam reformism in Indonesia, Sarekat Islam (1911-)
-Civilization vs. Barbarianism. Constitution, Smooth-running bureaucracy and Military prowess
-Militarism vs. Anti-War: Tolstoy’s Bethink Yourselves, Yosano Akiko’s poem “O Brother You Must Not Die” Japanese / English, => Economic factors
-Capitalism vs. Communism: Christian proto-communists of the early 1900s in Japan, Est. of Heimin-sha in 1903, Lenin’s critique of Russo-Japanese war as anti-Russian workers in Geneva, Second Internationale in Amesterdam, Aug. 1904 =>1905 Revolution in Russia (Bloody Sunday Incident, Rebellion at Battleship Potemkin, Constitutional rule) – Russian Revolution in 1917

【Question】 What were the underlying conflict? Who were competing against whom in the 1900s and 1910s?

3. Consumerism and Communism
a) Cosumerism
– Irresistable urge.
– Mass production and mass consumption.  => Early 20th Century United States as the prototype — science both natural and social, university and research centers, philanthrophy => industrial policy, scientific managerial revolution
– Advertisement – Image – Life Style. Ex. Alice Roosevelt, Famous Photo / Cartoon / An interesting blog (Korean)
– Movies, Jazz, Dance Halls, youth culture
– Modern Girls and Boys no only in San Francisco or Tokyo but also in Seoul, Manila, etc.
– Urbanization
– Schools in the Colonial Philippines

b) Communists in Asia
– primitive accumulation of capital
– Census – Cadastral surveying
– Changing class structure in the colony
Stage A: White (Japanese) – Asians (Koreans)
Stage B: White (Japanese) – Local Elites –  Asian (Korean) masses (peasants or urban dwellers)
Local Elites: landowners, middle-ranking or low-ranking bureaucrats, teachers at high schools or colleges, wealthy merchants
Stage C (Post Independence): Local Elites –  Asian (Korean) masses
-Divided cities
– Extreme poverty of the masses => No way to express their anger = a. Millenarianism (religious), the Philippines and Korea in the 1930s; b. communism

c) Communism as a world-wide system
– Rigid hierarchy – scientific theory of history: primitive communism (equality) – feudal society – bourgeois revolution – capitalist society – socialist revolution – communist society
– Dictatorship of the proletariat as the ultimate goal
– The vanguard party – the masses
– Soviet Union – China – Southeast Asia / Soviet Union – Chinese / Koreans / Japanese
– Issues: 1. the enemy of the colonial state, underground, thus the target of the police repression; 2. language barriars; 3. One nation-one communist party system

d) Communist parties in Asia
– Chinese – Est. 1921, bitter struggles against the nationalists, united front in the late 1920s and after mid-1930s against the invading Japanese, the Chinese civil war 1945-1949, New China, group leadership at the top from the 1970s to the early 2010s.
– Korean – Kim Il Song as  one of the factions under the Soviet guidance, divided rule by the Soviet and the Americans, became dominant in North Korea, his family linage in North Korea.
– Japanese – Est. 1922, Peace Preservation law (1925-1945), renunciation of revolution in the mid 1950s, the biggest communist party in the capitalist world.
– Vietnamese (Indochina)  – Ho Chi Ming as leader, fought against the Japanese, French and Americans and defeated them all, unified Vietnam
– Indonesian – Est. 1920, Premature uprising in 1926, repression in the 1930s, one of the ideological pillars in the 1950s, massive repression and disappearance as a result of the September 30th incident (1965)
– Filipino – Est. 1930, its ideology influential in the late 1930s, anti-Japanese guerrilla forces in the 1940s, repressed in the 1940s and 1950s, turned Maoist and armed struggles in the 1960s to the present day.
– Malayan – Comprised mostly of Chinese in Malaya, repression by the British in the 1950s, Maoist tactics, marginalized and weakened in the 1960s with the birth of Singapore  and due to the relative wealth of the Chinese over the Malayans in Malaysia.

【Memory】 Internationale in Tagalog and Japanese.
【Memory】Japanese Bank Note from the 1960s to the 80s.  1000 yen bill/ Three bills in the 80s.

【Question】What is/was the role of communism in the 20th century history? Especially, with regards to the history of colonialism in the 20th century.

Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes : A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996(『 20世紀の歴史 : 極端な時代』 三省堂 1996).
加藤陽子『戦争まで : 歴史を決めた交渉と日本の失敗』 朝日出版社, 2016.
加藤陽子『それでも、日本人は「戦争」を選んだ』 朝日出版社, 2009.
栗原浩英『コミンテルン・システムとインドシナ共産党』 東京大学出版会, 2005.
田中宏『在日外国人 新版』岩波書店, 1991.
山室信一『日露戦争の世紀』岩波新書, 2005.
倉沢愛子「20世紀アジアの戦争―帝国と脱植民地化」『岩波講座 アジア・太平洋戦争1巻 なぜ、いまアジア・太平洋戦争か』岩波書店, 2005.
歴史学研究会編『「韓国併合」100年と日本の歴史学:「植民地責任」論の視座から』青木書店, 2011.
和田春樹『北朝鮮 : 遊撃隊国家の現在』 岩波書店, 1998.
和田春樹他編『岩波講座東アジア近現代通史. 第2巻 日露戦争と韓国併合 : 19世紀末-1900年代』岩波書店, 2010.
May 12. (4) (1930s) Crisis of Colonialism: Proto-Independent State, Colonial Surveillance State, War in China [Nanjing Incident]

1. Changing Inter-imperial relations
A.  World War I in Asia
– From 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918
– Importance in Europe – More British killed in WWI than in WWII. Poppy flowers.
– Entente (Alllied) Powers: Britain, US, France, Russia, Japan vs. Central Powers: Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire
– Causes: Britain vs. Germany over Near East; Russia vs. Austria over the Balkan Peninsula; Territorial dispute between France and Germany
– Outcome: Russian Revolution, Nov. 1917; Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points, Jan. 1918; German Revolution and the End of Its Imperial Rule, Nov. 1918; The End of Austro-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire
– International Aspect: Massive mobilization  of people from colonies especially from India
– Japan’s attitude: Participated in the war out of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance; Seeking the expansion of sphere of influence by going after German territories; 21 Demands against China

B. League of Nations
(a) The Outline of League of Nations
– Based on Article 1 of the Versaille Treaty
– Purpose: to maintain international peace
– Founded on 20 January 1920
– The United States did not participate.
– Britain, France, Italy and Japan as original permanent members of the Excutive Council. Later Germany and Soviet Union were admitted.

(b) Mandated Territory
– As an effort to dismantle the colonial system
– Former German territories
– Three tiered system [a] Autonomy granted with a view to grant independence in the near future, [b] Respect for local autonomy, [c] Attachment to the metropolitan state
– Irony: Colonies were formalized.
– In case of Japan, the Pacific Islands, namely the Caroine, Martial, Mariana and Palau islands, became mandated territories under [c].

(c) Attempts for maintaining peace
– Washington Conference (1921) and its aftermath:
Nine Power Treaty (on China): China’s soverignty, its open door policy and territorial integrity be respected
Four Power Treaty: US, Britain, France and Japan as signatory. Respecting each other’s territories in the Pacific.
Reduction of arms race: Ratio on battleships as 5 (US): 5(Br): 3(Jpn).
–  Successful resolution to the Greece-Bulgarian War (1915),
– Adoption of the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (1928), Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

2. Reactions in Colonies and New Policies
A. Before 1920
– The Philippines: Christmas Fiasco (1914), Abolition of Colonial Commission and two chamber system in the colonial assembly (1916)
–  Indonesia: “Comite Boemi Poetra” (“Committee of Indigenous Sons”)  as a protest organization, est. in July, 1913 => This gradually changed into advisory function.
–  Burma (Myanmar): From YMBA (Young Men’s Buddhist Association) to  GCBA (General Conference of Burmese Associations)  (1920)
=> emphasis on “colonial democracy”
– Korea: Korean Students’ demand for independence in Feb., 1919 – Kojong’s Death – March 1 Movement, 1919 (mostly religious organizations) – mobilized 2 million people – repression followed by “cultural rule”
– China: Japan’s 21 demands (secession of the Shandong Peninsula, etc.) – National Humiliation Day – May 4th Movement, 1919

B. Wilson’s 14 points, “self-determination” and its limitation
– Reaction to Lenin’s internationalism
– “self-determination” applied only to Eastern Europe.

C. Chinese Situation in the 1910s and 1920s
(a) Post-Revolution Dictatorship
– New Ideology after 1912. ”Three Principles of the People” – care for people’s life (land redistribution), democracy, anti-Manchurian pro-Han.
– Yuan Shikai’s 袁世凱 dictatorship
– Japan’s 21 demands and thereafter
– Chinese sense as a victor, pro-ideal 公理 anti-power 強権

(b) Sun Yat Sen and his movment
– The birth of Kuomingtang 国民党 headed by Sun Yat Sen孫文
– Sense of international hierarchy (rankings) as attested by the Executive Council
– Further humiliation due to the territorial concessions of Dairen  大連 and Port Arthur 旅順 to Japan under the Washington Treaty
– Dual government in Guangdong 広東 and Beijing 北京
– Reprssion of strikes in Shanghai
– The death of Sun Yat Sen, collapse of the Beijing government and Warlords in the North

(c) Chiang Kai-shek
– The rise of Chiang Kai-shek 蒋介石 as the leader of the Kuomingtang
– Rivalry between the Communist party and the Kuomingtang

【Quesion】How would you describe the situation in China? Is it justifiable to call it a “semi-colony”?

3. New State Ideologies and Japan’s expansionism
A New Ideologies
(a)  Democracy and Alternatives
– Expansion of democracy in the 1920s and decrease of democratic state in the 1930’s
– The Great Depression (1929)
– What to do with the poor
– Liberal Democracy / Fascism / Communism
– Japan as a fascist state.

(b) Proto-Independent State
– The Philippines in 1935 after independence negotiations with the US. Minor uprsings in the early 1930s and more major Maoist organizing in central Luzon in the late 1930s. Quezon’s co-opting of communist agendas.
– Burma in the late 1930s. Burmese prime ministership and party politics. Social confusion caused by massive strikes and agrarian uprising in the 1930s.

(c) Surveillance and Police State
– Korea in the late 1930s.  Repression of the Korean culture, which expanded during “culutural era” in the name of “imperialization” 皇民化. – Good imperial vassels vs. the strengthening of the Korean people vs. Korean anti-colonial fighters. Massive mobilization of Koreans for Japan’s war efforts.
– Vietnam as anti-communist state, land owning class in the South, more support for communism in the North.
– Indonesia as a surveillance state – incarceration of nationalists.

C. Internal Conflicts in China and Japan’s involvement
1927 A brief united front between the nationalists and the communists over the situation in Shanghai.
1928 Kuomingtang’ revolutionary army advances northward to unify China; Japan dipatches troops to the Shandong Peninsula.
1932 The first Shanghai incident. The establishment of Manchu-kuo (Manchuria) by the Japanese. Protest by the Lytton Commission. Japan quits the League of Nations as a result.
1934 The communists start the “long march.”
1937 The Marco Polo Bridge incident, The Second Shanghai Incident, The Nanjing Massacre, Full-blown war between Japan and China. The Second United Front.
1940 Wang Zhaoming’s (汪兆銘、汪精衛)Pro-Japanese Nationalist Government in Nanjing.
– Continuous war in China not only until 1945 but until 1949.

4.Nanjing Massacre
A. In brief.
– Part of a war against the Kuomingtan after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
– Advancement from Shanghai to Nanjing (Capitol of the Kuomingtang)
– Lack of logistics
– Killing spree on the way to Nanjing and in the city of Nanjing. Map
– Question of numbers (30,000 vs. 150,000 vs. 300,000)
– Question of Plain-Clothe Guerrillas

B. War in China in Four Phases
Phase 1: “First Blow” theory, The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the Panay Incident, the Nanjing Massacre
Phase 2: Anti-KMT in Middle China,
Phase 3: Two Fronts, North and South, North-Communists, Battles of Khalkhin Gol (ノモンハン戦争)
Phase 4: War in China in the Asia-Pacific War, “Three Flashes” (三光作戦).

C. Controversies
(a) Not much of a contrversy until the 1980s.

(b)  Publications of primary documents: Journalism and interviews on the Chinese in Nanjing in the 1970s and Primary Japanese  Documents in the 1980s.

(c) Controversies since the 1990s.
– Photos
– More publications of primary documents: Documents submitted to Documents of Americans, Germans and Chinese Nationalists.
– School trips to Nanjing
– Azuma Shiro Trial
– Writings of Foot Soldiers (Yasukuni Shrine,  Ono Kenji)
– Movies
– Comic books
– Joint research

(d) Dying down of controversies for now.

【Question】Why is it that this particular issue is no longer a hot topic between Japanese and Chinese?

【Memory】Bloody Saturday

(History of China and Southeast Asia)
石川禎浩『革命とナショナリズム : 1925-1945』岩波新書, 2010.
川島真『近代国家への模索1894-1925』岩波書店, 2010.
池端, 雪浦他『岩波講座東南アジア史7巻 植民地抵抗運動とナショナリズムの展開』岩波書店, 2002.
木畑洋一『20世紀の歴史』岩波書店, 2014.
笠原十九司『日中戦争全史』上下, 高文研, 2017.

(General Histories on Nanjing Massacre)
洞富雄『決定版 南京大虐殺』徳間書店1982年

(On the controversy itself)
笠原十九司『南京事件論争史: 日本人は史実をどう認識してきたか』平凡社, 2018.

(Primary Documents)
The publication of primary documents
A)『日中戦争史資料8 南京事件Ⅰ』(河出書房新社、1973)
B)『日中戦争史資料9 南京事件Ⅱ』(河出書房新車、1973)
Documents presented as evidences in the Tokyo Trial
Documents from the Japanese Central China Army. War-time journals from both officers and rank-and-file soldiers.
Documents related to the International Safety Zone such as letters of the missionary and reportage by foreign journalists who stayed in the zone.
Documents gathered by China specialists. Newspaper articles from both nationalist and communist newspapers, writings left by the victims, court documents from the Nanjing BC-Class Trial.
War-time journals left by the soldiers in the Yamada expeditionary force of the 13th division.
F)『資料 ドイツ外交官の見た南京事件』(大月書店、2001)
Perspectives from Nazi Germany. At that time, Germany was supporting the Chinese Nationalist Government and provided weapons and military aids. This compilation contains diplomatic documents sent by the German diplomats.
Ono Kenji’s published collections of letters and interviews.
(5) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War I: Sexual violence and Military “Comfort Women”

1.On “Comfort Women”
– What are their nationalities?
– Where did they work?
– Who had sex with them?
Locations of Comfort Stations

2. Military Forces that use Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War
– What is sexual violence?
– Can we consider prostitution as a form of sexual violence?
– Is there such a thing as sex work purely out of freewill?
– Does every military use sexual violence in one form or another?
– Under what circumstances can the free will of a sex worker guaranteed?
– Sexual violence as propaganda.

3. Imperial Japanese forces and Sexual Violence
(1)Interest raised by the “comfort women” issues.
A. Democracy vs. Fascism
-The ”Comfort Women” system in the Japanese forces
– Sexual exploitation of Jewish Women in concentration camps in Nazi Germany
– No apparent state-sponsored prostitution system for its soldiers for American, British, and Australian forces.
– Case of the landing of Normandy by the US forces.

B. Colonialism
– Germany’s extermination of the Hereros in Namibia, which involved sexual violence.
– Wide-spread use of military prostitution for the French colonial army from Algeria to Vietnam. Long distance travel.
– British violece against the Maumau incl. sexual violence

(2)Studies on Shanxi Province(山西省), China
– Location of the so-called “三光作戦”(three-flash operation)- Kill them all, burn them all, rob them all.
– The Japanese forces fighting against the Communist forces.
– Suppression from one village to another.
–  The semi-underground fortresses (a Russian-sytle huge pillbox) of the Japanese forces overseeing a village.
【Memory】*Trailer for 鬼子来了”Devils on the Doorstep” (2000) 
*The setting is different. 河北省Hebei Prov., locating next to Shanxi Prov. in the East.
– Kasahara Tokuji’s study: Based on village records, in-depth interviews on three Japanese soldiers.
– Ishida Yoneko’s study: building rapport with the former victims of sexual violence, helping them to sue the Japanese government in Japan.  Reconstructing a war situation based on a narrative of an Okinawan soldier, who fought in Shanxi Prov. and by making references to post-war narrations of Japanese soldiers.
– Ban Zhongyi’s movie: A documentary film on one of the female communist village leaders.
【Memory】 Poems of the Japanese soldiers in Shanxi Prov.

【Question】 How can we justify the talk about the painful past?

4.Different kinds of sexual violence in Central Visayas, the Philippines.
Map1 Map2 of Central Visayas
Japan’s military Structure (Activated for War)
Division (25000)  – 3 Inf. Battalions  (3000) – 3 Companies (200) – 3 Platoons (50)

– Total of 12 investigated, 14 (15?) cases brought to trial
– Like the three-flash operation. Anti-guerrilla warfare. Travelling from one village to the next from July to December, 1943.
– Detailed by Kumai Toshimi, Intelligence Officer. Map
– Conducted by Tozuka Battalion, orchestrated by Intelligence Officers Watanabe Kengo and Watanabe Hidemi.
– Rigorously prosecuted after Japan’s surrender. Each incident involved the killing of tens to hundreds. Sporadic sexual violence in the charge.
– Some graphic details in the testimonies and interrogations.
– Watanabe Kengo killed in action. From the Battalion commander to the Platoon leaders, they were all found guilty and executed.
– The line of command is clear and most of the commanders and perpetrators were held  responsible for the crimes by the Japanese soldiers.

– Most of the cases took place after Onishi Battalion took charge of the defense in June, 1944.
– Total of 31 cases investigated, 14 cases brought to trial.

A. Case 1: Cordova Case
– Commited By a patrol under Visayas Kempeitai, Cebu Unit
– Roundup of local residents, severe torture including sexual violence. One possible rape.
– Patrol commander YO and alleged rapist IS got executed.
– Methodical way of torture and sexual violence.

B. Case 2: Barili Case
– Local platoon, rounded up about 20 residents for guerrilla charges
– Without trial, they were executed in the end. However, prior to that, men were severely tortured and women were repeatedly raped.
– Written order from the 1st Company Commander Higashi.
– All the platoon members were executed.

C. Case 3: Medellin Case
– AS was the commander of a local company
– Co-existence with the guerrila.
– This delicate balance got toppled. One Jpn soldier got killed and another injured and sent to Cebu city.
– An expeditionary force was sent by 1st Company  and it was headed by Higashi.
– Higashi’s force raided the villages in the vicinity on the way to get to Medellin, kidnapped Del Rio sisters and kept them with them for the next 10 days.
– Seeing Del Rio sisters in captivity, AS rescued one of them. It was ensued by a bickering with Higashi. Higashi being superior, she was returned to the unit.
–  The Del Rio sisters were killed as Higashi departed Medellin.
– AS made a complaint to General Manjome, a superior officer of Onishi. Manjome did not do anything about it since Higashi was killed in combat in March, 1945.
– AS was executed.

D. Case 4:  Minglanilla Case
– The biggest incident in terms of the number of casualties.
– 30 Chinese residents were raided by an outside unit at night in the inland village of Tubog.  Several women got raped repeatedly.
– Company commander MZ of a Navy Transportation unit stationed in Mambaling, a coastal town, was accused for this crime.
– He was given a death sentence but petitioned by the people of Mambaling and eventually released.
– It was quite likely that a company under Onishi’s command was responsible. But Onishi was not prosecuted.

E. Regarding “Comfort Women”
– IS’s defense that he did not rape.
– BG’s testimony on behalf of the Japanese.

F. Summary
-The line of command: Onishi – Higashi – Other Company Commanders and Platoon Leaders
– Onishi was given a life in prison but survived and confirmed to have lived upto the 1970s.
– Higashi was killed in action.
– Probably, wrongfully accused, AS and MZ

– Total of  5 cases investigated, 3 cases brought to trial.
– Murder, violence and sexual violence committed by Japanese runaway soldiers after Aug. 1945.
– Possibility of cannibalism, but not pursued in the trial.
– No line of command.

【Question】 Would it be justifiable to compare different kinds of victims? Pros and Cons. If so, what categories shall we set up?

Conceptual chart

(On Shanxi Province)
班忠義『ガイサンシー (蓋山西) とその姉妹たち』梨の木舎, 2011.
石田米子、内田知行『黄土の村の性暴力 : 大娘 (ダーニャン) たちの戦争は終わらない』創土社, 2004.
近藤一、石田米子他、『ある日本兵の二つの戦場 : 近藤一の終わらない戦争』社会評論社, 2005.
笠原十九司『南京事件と三光作戦 : 未来に生かす戦争の記憶』大月書店, 1999.
石井弓『記憶としての日中戦争 : インタビューによる他者理解の可能性』研文出版, 2013.

(On Cebu)
Mojares, Resil B., and Jose Eleazar R. Bersales, eds. The War in Cebu. Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines: University of San Carlos Press, 2015.
Sitoy, Adelino B. History of Cordova. Cebu City: Provincial Government of Cebu with the assistance of the University of San Carlos, 2014.
岡田泰平「性暴力と裁判―フィリピン戦が伝えるもの」細谷広美、佐藤義明編『グローバル化する<正義>の人類学――国際社会における法形成とローカリティ』昭和堂, 2019.
岡田泰平「日本軍「慰安婦」制度と性暴力―強制性と合法性をめぐる葛藤―」上野千鶴子, 蘭信三、平井和子編『戦争と性暴力の比較史へ向けて』岩波書店, 2018.
長井魁一郎『大東亜戦争BC級戦犯熊本県昭和殉難者銘録』長井魁一郎遺稿刊行委員会, 1997.
May 25 (6) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War II: Mobilization [Comfort Women]

1.Comfort Women
(1)Basic Points from the Last Session
・Forced to have sex with a large number of Japanese soldiers
・”Comfort Stations”  are quite widespread.
・Different  nationalities incl. Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, Dutch, and Japanese
・Long Distance Travel for the Korean Comfort Women
・Organized at the order of the Japanese military
・Coercion (being forced) became a central issue
・How they were recruited is still controversial.
Shock Value — the coming out of Kim Hak-sun (40:40)

(2)The original narratives from a photo book by Ito Koji published in 1993.
Kim Hak-sun
Lee Yong-su
Maria Rosa Henson

(3)Time Table
1965 Japan-Korea Treaty. Any impeding claims have been “completely and finally settled.”
1970-80 Books by Senda Kako千田夏光, Kim Ilu Myon金一勉, Yoshida Seiji吉田清治
1990.1.4-24 Yung Jong Ok published 4 reports in Hangyore Newspaper
1990.6.6 Japan’s labor ministry responded, “Comfort women were taken around by private companies”
1990.11.16 ”The Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan” was organized in Korea
1991.8.14 Kim Hak-sun came out
1991.12.6 Three comfort women incl. Kim Hak-sun filed a lawsuit againg the Japanese government along with other former Korean soliders and auxiliary workers.
1992.1.8 ”The Korean Council” held the first “Wednesday rally”
1992.1.11 Japanese Historian Yoshimi Yoshiaki disclosed documents on the Comfort Women  from the National Defense Force Archives in Ichigaya, Tokyo.
1992.1.17 Prime Minister Miyazawa Kichi went to Korea and apologized several times.
1992.9.18 Maria Rosa Henson came out
1993.4.2 Maria Rosa Henson filed a law suit against the Japanese government
1993.8.4 Kono Statement
1993.11, 1994.7 51% of the Japanese showed consent to  the individual compensation for the comfort women.  72% of them answered that Japan’s reparations were not enough
1994.8.31 Murayama Statement
1994.11.22 NGO ICJ issued a report claiming that the Japanese government fulfill its legal obligations.
1995 Yoshimi published Comfort Woman from Iwanami publisher
1995.7.19 The Asian Women’s Fund was established
1996.4.29 Commission of Human Rights, UN, “took note” of the Coomeraswamy, which recommended that Japan fulfill its legal obligations.
1996.8.14 The AWF dipensed “atonment money” to Rosa Henson and three other Filipino comfort women.
1996.12.15 Rosa Henson’s biography was published from Iwanami Published. The English translation was also published in the Philippines.
2000.12.8-12 The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery (mock-court) was held in Tokyo, which declared Japanese Emperor Hirohito as guilty.
2001.3.21 The “Comfort woman” compensation bill was submitted by the communists, socialists and democrats to the Upper Chamber of the Japanese Diet. (It was discussed briefly only once.)
2003.12.25 The Filipino Case was rejected at the Supreme Court。
2008.3 The Filipino national parliament endorsed a resolution on the compensation of “comfort women.” Similar resolutions in the US, European Union, Korean Parliament and Taiwanese Parliament.
2008.9.16 The Democratic Party of Japan became the ruling party (It lasted until 2012.12.26, but did not submit the “comfort woman” bill)
2011.8.30 The Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Korean Government guilty of not pursuing resolution against the Japanese Government.
2011.12.14 The Korean Council held the 1000th “Wednesday demonstration” and established a statue of a young girl in front of the Japanese Embassy.
2014.6.2 NGO Inter Asian Solidarity Movement disclosed “the recommendations for the Japanese Government”
2014.8.5-6  The Asahi Newspaper retracted articles relating to Yoshida Seiji.
2015.8.14 Prime Minister Abe’s 70th Anniversay Statement
2015.12.28 The Japan-Korea joint statement on the comfort woman issues.
2017.5 Moon Jae-in became Korean President
2018.7.16 ”The Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan” changed its name to “The Korean Council for Justice and Remembrance for the Issues of Military Sexual Slavery by Japan.”
2018.11 The Korean Government dissolved the foundation as stiputed in Dec. 2015.

(4)Reflecting upon the recent critique of former Comfort Woman Lee Yong-su
・Directed against the director of Korean Council for Justice and Remembrance for the Issues of Military Sexual Slavery by Japan
・Financial wrong doings
・Prevented the former comfort women from receiving the Japanese money
・This group has incited “hate” between Korea and Japan.
・This group endorsed the intentional confusion between the labor mobilization of women and “comfort women”

【Question】 What do you think is going to happen to the issue of “comfort women”?

(A partial list of references, mostly less known ones)
Galang, M. Evelina. Lolas’ House : Filipino Women Living with War. Northwestern University Press, 2017.
モーリス・スズキ, テッサ, 玄武岩 , 植村隆『「慰安婦」問題の境界を越えて : 連合国軍兵士が見た戦時性暴力、各地にできた<少女像>、朝日新聞と植村元記者へのバッシングについて』寿郎社, 2017.
安世鴻著・写真, 植田祐介訳『重重 : 中国に残された朝鮮人日本軍「慰安婦」の物語』大月書店, 2013.
伊藤孝司『破られた沈黙 : 写真記録 : アジアの「従軍慰安婦」たち』風媒社, 1993.
和田春樹『アジア女性基金と慰安婦問題 : 回想と検証』明石書店, 2016.

2.The Korean BC Class War Criminals.
Slide Show.