【Goals of the course】
This class is about wars in East Asia and Southeast Asia, covering from the late 19th century to the 21st century. Students are expected to acquire the basic understanding of modern Asian history. Each of the student is expected to form his or her perspective on the related topic of interest.
【Overview of the course】
History is not really about memorization. It enables us to think how each one of us should perceive the world and check on whether ones perspective is appropriate. Sadly, no one in this age is beyond nationalism. The best we can do is to reflect upon the stance each one of us takes. Although this is a lecture class, I do not mean to preach how you should think, but simply provide food for thought, so to speak.
20th century, Southeast and East Asia, Gender, War, War Crimes
(1) Guidance, Optimism and Pessimism on the 21st century
(2) (Late 19th century to 1910s) Imperialism and Colonialism: theoretical background, colonial wars
(3) (1910s to 1930s) Formation of Colonial Society: racism and consumerism, class divide, mass mobiliation, the coming of communism
(4) (1930s) Crisis of Colonialism: Proto-Independent State, Colonial Surveillance State, War in China [Nanjing Incident]
(5) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War I: Sexual violence and Military “Comfort Women”
(6) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War II: Mobilization [Forced Labor, Korean BC Class War Criminals]
(7) (1940s-1990s) The US occupation and the Rebirth of Japan [Tokyo Trial, SF peace treaty, Japan’s compensation scheme]
(8) (1940s-1972) East Asia under U.S. Hegemony: Base Politics, the Korean War and Okinawa and Taiwan
(9) (1940s-1965) Decolonization and Statebuilding in Southeast and East Asia: Different types of decolonization and its memories
(10) (1940s-1980s) Global History of the Indochina War［Memories and Activism of the Americans and Koreans］
(11) (1970s-1990s) Long Democraticization I: Southeast and East Asia and the Rise of China
(12) (1970s-1990s) Long Democraticization II: Civic Activism in East Asia [Postwar Individual Compensation Movements, Colonial Responsibilities] ; Low-intensity Warfare in Southeast Asia: terrorism, war on terror and securitization.
(13) Students’ presentation
April 21. (1) Guidance, Optimism and Pessimism in the 21st century
(1). Optimism vs. Pessimism
Optimism – The present is better than the past.
Pessimism – What happened will repeat itself, esp. tragic events.
Modernity – Optimism
Two essential characteristics of modernity — industrial revolution and nationalism
(2). Industrial Revolution – as a prime example of Optimism
Big question 1: Why did industrial revolution happen in Britain first?
Big question 2: Why is it that some people could repeat what the British did while others failed?
The Williams’ Thesis: Europe became industrialized due to its exploitation of Latin America, aka its colonies.
Ex. Drinking Tea => Communication => Democracy
Wallerstain’s World System: a. capitalism as one system, b. Core – Semi Periphery – Periphery
=> The earlier and faster a nation achieves industrialization, the stronger it is.
Historical continuity: ethnos – proto-nation – modern nation (Antony Smith)
ethnos – sharing the same religion, tradition, language, …
Post-industrial worldwide phenomenon: Overlapping of national community and political community (Ernest Gellner)
Imagined Community: post-religion, national language (= print capitalism) (B. Anderson)
(4) East Asia and Southeast Asia
East Asia – Chinese character as scripts, confucianism (Heaven), Trade System: Middle Kingdom – Tributary States – Barbarians.
Southeast Asia – “The Lands below the Winds,” Heavy influences of the Indian and Chinese civilizations, multi-ethnic by definition, expansion of Islam from the 15th c.
(5) Important questions:
– Which of the premodern states was more deeply embedded in the Chinese tributary system?
– How strong was the national identity of premodern ethnos?
– How united was the premodern state? The more unity the better?
Pinker, Steven. The Better Angels of Our Nature : Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Viking, 2011.
Anderson, Benedict R. O’G. Imagined Communities : Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. and extended ed. London ; New York: Verso, 1991.
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. New Perspectives on the Past. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983.
Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism : Theory, Ideology, History. Key Concepts. 2nd ed ed. Cambridge: Polity, 2010.
(Capitalism and World System)
Wallerstein, Immanuel Maurice. The Modern World-System. Text ed. 2 vols. New York: Academic Press, 1976. [4 Volumes]
—『世界システム論講義 : ヨーロッパと近代世界』筑摩書房, 2016.
(Chinese Tributary System)
尾形勇,岸本美緒 『中国史』山川出版社, 1998.
Reid, Anthony. Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450-1680. 2 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
Opinion: This Has Been the Best Year Ever by Nicholas Kristof
New York Times, Dec. 28, 2019
April 28. (2) (Late 19th century to 1910s) Imperialism and Colonialism: theoretical background, colonial wars
1. Imperialism – Lenin’s defition
2. Nation States and Colonial States
A Nation States
Based on nationalism
i (sovereignty): National sovereignty
rule by many – democracy/anarchy
rule by few – oligarchy or Democratic Centralism
rule by one – dictatorship
ii (legality): Constitution – Public Laws – Private Laws
Constitution as the higest law of the land — constraints upon other laws
iii (membership and equality): Equality among its citizens, i.e. the formal members of the nation-state
Usually a two-tier system: citizens with full rights and foreigners with limited rights
Anti-thesis to universal human rights
B Colonial state
Based on raw power of militarism
i: Colonial sovereignty guranteed by other colonial empires
rule by few – people from the metropolitan state (+ local elites)
rule by one – Governor General
Almost always faces challenges from below for the expansion of political participation
ii: Administrative Order
– No constitutional rights. The metropolitan constitution does not apply to the colony.
– Sometimes, colonial assemblies get established with constraints. There is always an upper authority of Governor-General.
III: Racism (ethno-centrism) at the core
– By definition, the metropolitan race (Americans, Japanese, Europeans) cannot be equal to the conquared race (Filipinos, Koreans, Africans)
C: A variety of colonial states
– White settlement colonies
– Migration colonies of Latin America
– The usual type: the local population is much more populous (the metro polititan population from 0.5% to 5%)
[Question] Where does racism come from, colonialism or nationalism? Can we find any positive value in the “Colonial State”?
3. East Asian and Southeast Asian States
A Their colonial relations
B Why is it that Japan and Thailand escaped colonialism?
Premise: Nationalism + Industrial Revolution
– Semi-diarchy rule (Shogunate + Emperor, 1615?-1868)
– Japan’s modernization as “restoration” of the imperial rule
– Economic difficulty in the 19th Century and agrarian uprisings
– Combination of centralization and decentralization (Bakufu – Han – Sankinkotai)
– Rigid status system (Samurai-Farmers-Artisan-Merchants and untouchables) => Abolition thereof the untouchable status in 1872
– Weak or modified Confucian ideology, the rise of nationlist studies (Kokugaku from the late 18th century)
– Choson Dynasty (1392-1897)
– Economic difficulty due to climate change(18th century) and agrarian uprisings in the 19th century
– Self-awareness as the center of the Confucian ideology (Mythology of Kija Choson 기자조선(箕子朝鮮))
– Influences by the outside states, China, Russia and Japan => internal disputes
– Weak legitimacy of the King (Emperor after 1897)
– Qing Dynasty as Manchu rule (1636-1912)
– Powerful local bureaucrats and their own Westernization movement
– A long history and strong sense of their own middle
– A rather advanced standard of living in the late 18th century (More than 100 mil. people)
– Economic turmoil in the beginning of the 19th century
D Continental Southeast States
– Main ethnic groups (Viet, Khmer, Lao, Thai, Burman) and state formation: (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar)
– Theravāda Buddihist states
– Relatively short kingdoms (Chakri Kingdom (Thai), 1782-; Konbaung Kingdom (Konbaung) 1752-)
– Clearer break away from China in the case of Thailand
– Kings and the success of modernizing efforts: Chulalongkorn (Thailand) or Mindon Min (Myanmar)
E Archipelagic Southeast States
– Trade network and port states
– Longer engagement of Western powers: Malacca (Portugese, 1511-); Jakarta (Dutch, 1619-); Manila (1571-)
– Migration from India and China
– Trade of staple crops, esp. rice
4. Turn-of-the-Century Wars
Why did it become so brutal? Filipino-American War (1898-1902), Agrarian Wars under Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
– Better weapons (rifles, horses)
– Better military organizations
– No cultural commonality, no way to reconcile.
– Mass killings
【Question】Did colonialism mean the same for East and SE Asia? Is one colony treated better than others? If so, what were the determinant factors?
(On imperialism and colonialism)
(On Japan, Korea and China)
Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.
井上勝生『明治日本の植民地支配 : 北海道から朝鮮へ』岩波書店, 2013.
(On Southeast Asia)
Reid, Anthony. Imperial Alchemy : Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
May 5. (3) (1910s to 1930s) Formation of Colonial Society: racism and consumerism, class divide, mass mobiliation, the coming of communism
1. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) as World War Zero
A. Control over Korea
– Japan’s rationale: to get rid of the Russian and Chinese influence, to give Korea “Independence”
– Russia’s rationale: Traditional Eastward expansion, the Siberian railways, unfrozen ports
B. Historical Issues
a) The Sino-Japanese War (1884-85)
– The Treaty of Shimonoseki: 1. Independence of Korea, 2. Taiwan and Liaodong Peninsula （遼東半島）are given to Japan, 3. Opening of ports, indemnities, etc,
– The Triple Intervention by Russians, French and Germans. Japan returned Liaodong Peninsula. => Japanese grievance against the Russians.
b) The Boxer Rebellion in China (1900)
– Pro-Qing Anti-Christian bottom-up movement at the turn of the century
– In response to casualities of some diplomats, troops sent by major powers:
British Empire, Russia, Japan, France, German Empire, United States, Italy, Austria-Hungary
– British – the Boar War, United States – the Filipino-US War, Japan – the biggest dispatch to Beijing. The Japanese troops stayed on and even increased until 1945.
c) Imperial Alliances
– Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902-1921): Against the Southward Movement of the Russians, Crimea and Afghanistan as other points of conflict; British in Komundo (巨文島)
– Katsura-Taft Secret Treaty (Aug. 1905): Recognizing Japan’s control of Korea and America’s control of the Philippines.
– The Treaty of Portsmouth (Sep. 1905): Sponsored by American President Theodore Roosevelt, Manchuria became a sphere of influence of the Japanese, The Russians retreated from Korea, little indemnity to the Japanese.
– Franco-Japanese Agreement (1907): France recognized Japan’s supremacy over Korea and Manchuria and Japan France’s commercial interests in Southern China and its territorial expansion in French Indochina.
– Russo-Japanese Agreement (1907): As a result of improving British-Russian relations. Mutual recognition of Northeasten Asia as sphere of influence. => Getting rid of other powers from intervening into Northeastern China.
=> Imperial stability.
– Colonization of Korea (1910): Japanese Council (1904), Deprivation of foreign relations and Japanese Protectorate (Nov. 1905), Hiring of Japanese Bureaucrats (1907).
2. International Politics and Nationalist Struggles
a) Perceptions on Japan
– “Yellow Peril” — White vs. Yellow; Russians and German (esp. Wilhelm II) => Japan’s appeal “Bushido” as chivalry code, i.e. civilized; Winning Theodore Roosevelt on their side (although TR believed in the superiority of Anglo-Saxons)
– Constitutional Monarchy and Freedom of Religion (Japan) vs. Traditional Emperor with limited freedom (Russia)
– Japan as Light of Asia — Immediately after Japan’s victory, the Arabs, Turks, Filipinos, Indians, Burmese, Vietnamese, Polish, Hungarians …
– Japan as Asia’s Public Enemy — Chinese and Koreans, but others followed suit in the latter part of the 1910s. Ex. Phan Boi Chau => Mixed perceptions on Japan. Ex. Ricarte
-Networking of Nationalists: Phan’s Tonzu東遊 Movement, Chinese Reformists Sun Yat Sen (孫文) and Liáng Qǐchāo (梁啓超), Filipino Revolutionary Mariano Ponce
– Nationalist grievances at the international scene: Filipino Sixto Lopez in the Paris Treaty (1898); Hong Kong Junta (Goverment-in-exile of the Filipino revolutionaries); The Hague Peace Conference and Korean delegates (1907).
– Islamic identity as national identity
c) Ideological divides
-Christianity vs. Islam. Ex. The Achenese War (1873-1912), Indonesia; Massacres Bud Dajo (1906), Jolo, Sulu, and Bud Bagsak (1913), Mindanao, the Philippines. => Islam reformism in Indonesia, Sarekat Islam (1911-)
-Civilization vs. Barbarianism. Constitution, Smooth-running bureaucracy and Military prowess
-Militarism vs. Anti-War: Tolstoy’s Bethink Yourselves, Yosano Akiko’s poem “O Brother You Must Not Die” Japanese / English, => Economic factors
-Capitalism vs. Communism: Christian proto-communists of the early 1900s in Japan, Est. of Heimin-sha in 1903, Lenin’s critique of Russo-Japanese war as anti-Russian workers in Geneva, Second Internationale in Amesterdam, Aug. 1904 =>1905 Revolution in Russia (Bloody Sunday Incident, Rebellion at Battleship Potemkin, Constitutional rule) – Russian Revolution in 1917
【Question】 What were the underlying conflict? Who were competing against whom in the 1900s and 1910s?
3. Consumerism and Communism
– Irresistable urge.
– Mass production and mass consumption. => Early 20th Century United States as the prototype — science both natural and social, university and research centers, philanthrophy => industrial policy, scientific managerial revolution
– Advertisement – Image – Life Style. Ex. Alice Roosevelt, Famous Photo / Cartoon / An interesting blog (Korean)
– Movies, Jazz, Dance Halls, youth culture
– Modern Girls and Boys no only in San Francisco or Tokyo but also in Seoul, Manila, etc.
– Schools in the Colonial Philippines
b) Communists in Asia
– primitive accumulation of capital
– Census – Cadastral surveying
– Changing class structure in the colony
Stage A: White (Japanese) – Asians (Koreans)
Stage B: White (Japanese) – Local Elites – Asian (Korean) masses (peasants or urban dwellers)
Local Elites: landowners, middle-ranking or low-ranking bureaucrats, teachers at high schools or colleges, wealthy merchants
Stage C (Post Independence): Local Elites – Asian (Korean) masses
– Extreme poverty of the masses => No way to express their anger = a. Millenarianism (religious), the Philippines and Korea in the 1930s; b. communism
c) Communism as a world-wide system
– Rigid hierarchy – scientific theory of history: primitive communism (equality) – feudal society – bourgeois revolution – capitalist society – socialist revolution – communist society
– Dictatorship of the proletariat as the ultimate goal
– The vanguard party – the masses
– Soviet Union – China – Southeast Asia / Soviet Union – Chinese / Koreans / Japanese
– Issues: 1. the enemy of the colonial state, underground, thus the target of the police repression; 2. language barriars; 3. One nation-one communist party system
d) Communist parties in Asia
– Chinese – Est. 1921, bitter struggles against the nationalists, united front in the late 1920s and after mid-1930s against the invading Japanese, the Chinese civil war 1945-1949, New China, group leadership at the top from the 1970s to the early 2010s.
– Korean – Kim Il Song as one of the factions under the Soviet guidance, divided rule by the Soviet and the Americans, became dominant in North Korea, his family linage in North Korea.
– Japanese – Est. 1922, Peace Preservation law (1925-1945), renunciation of revolution in the mid 1950s, the biggest communist party in the capitalist world.
– Vietnamese (Indochina) – Ho Chi Ming as leader, fought against the Japanese, French and Americans and defeated them all, unified Vietnam
– Indonesian – Est. 1920, Premature uprising in 1926, repression in the 1930s, one of the ideological pillars in the 1950s, massive repression and disappearance as a result of the September 30th incident (1965)
– Filipino – Est. 1930, its ideology influential in the late 1930s, anti-Japanese guerrilla forces in the 1940s, repressed in the 1940s and 1950s, turned Maoist and armed struggles in the 1960s to the present day.
– Malayan – Comprised mostly of Chinese in Malaya, repression by the British in the 1950s, Maoist tactics, marginalized and weakened in the 1960s with the birth of Singapore and due to the relative wealth of the Chinese over the Malayans in Malaysia.
【Question】What is/was the role of communism in the 20th century history? Especially, with regards to the history of colonialism in the 20th century.
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes : A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996(『 20世紀の歴史 : 極端な時代』 三省堂 1996).
加藤陽子『戦争まで : 歴史を決めた交渉と日本の失敗』 朝日出版社, 2016.
加藤陽子『それでも、日本人は「戦争」を選んだ』 朝日出版社, 2009.
栗原浩英『コミンテルン・システムとインドシナ共産党』 東京大学出版会, 2005.
田中宏『在日外国人 新版』岩波書店, 1991.
倉沢愛子「20世紀アジアの戦争―帝国と脱植民地化」『岩波講座 アジア・太平洋戦争１巻 なぜ、いまアジア・太平洋戦争か』岩波書店, 2005.
和田春樹『北朝鮮 : 遊撃隊国家の現在』 岩波書店, 1998.
和田春樹他編『岩波講座東アジア近現代通史. 第2巻 日露戦争と韓国併合 : 19世紀末-1900年代』岩波書店, 2010.
May 12. (4) (1930s) Crisis of Colonialism: Proto-Independent State, Colonial Surveillance State, War in China [Nanjing Incident]
1. Changing Inter-imperial relations
A. World War I in Asia
– From 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918
– Importance in Europe – More British killed in WWI than in WWII. Poppy flowers.
– Entente (Alllied) Powers: Britain, US, France, Russia, Japan vs. Central Powers: Germany, Austria, Ottoman Empire
– Causes: Britain vs. Germany over Near East; Russia vs. Austria over the Balkan Peninsula; Territorial dispute between France and Germany
– Outcome: Russian Revolution, Nov. 1917; Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points, Jan. 1918; German Revolution and the End of Its Imperial Rule, Nov. 1918; The End of Austro-Hungarian Empire and Ottoman Empire
– International Aspect: Massive mobilization of people from colonies especially from India
– Japan’s attitude: Participated in the war out of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance; Seeking the expansion of sphere of influence by going after German territories; 21 Demands against China
B. League of Nations
(a) The Outline of League of Nations
– Based on Article 1 of the Versaille Treaty
– Purpose: to maintain international peace
– Founded on 20 January 1920
– The United States did not participate.
– Britain, France, Italy and Japan as original permanent members of the Excutive Council. Later Germany and Soviet Union were admitted.
(b) Mandated Territory
– As an effort to dismantle the colonial system
– Former German territories
– Three tiered system [a] Autonomy granted with a view to grant independence in the near future, [b] Respect for local autonomy, [c] Attachment to the metropolitan state
– Irony: Colonies were formalized.
– In case of Japan, the Pacific Islands, namely the Caroine, Martial, Mariana and Palau islands, became mandated territories under [c].
(c) Attempts for maintaining peace
– Washington Conference (1921) and its aftermath:
Nine Power Treaty (on China): China’s soverignty, its open door policy and territorial integrity be respected
Four Power Treaty: US, Britain, France and Japan as signatory. Respecting each other’s territories in the Pacific.
Reduction of arms race: Ratio on battleships as 5 (US): 5(Br): 3(Jpn).
– Successful resolution to the Greece-Bulgarian War (1915),
– Adoption of the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (1928), Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
2. Reactions in Colonies and New Policies
A. Before 1920
– The Philippines: Christmas Fiasco (1914), Abolition of Colonial Commission and two chamber system in the colonial assembly (1916)
– Indonesia: “Comite Boemi Poetra” (“Committee of Indigenous Sons”) as a protest organization, est. in July, 1913 => This gradually changed into advisory function.
– Burma (Myanmar): From YMBA (Young Men’s Buddhist Association) to GCBA (General Conference of Burmese Associations) (1920)
=> emphasis on “colonial democracy”
– Korea: Korean Students’ demand for independence in Feb., 1919 – Kojong’s Death – March 1 Movement, 1919 (mostly religious organizations) – mobilized 2 million people – repression followed by “cultural rule”
– China: Japan’s 21 demands (secession of the Shandong Peninsula, etc.) – National Humiliation Day – May 4th Movement, 1919
B. Wilson’s 14 points, “self-determination” and its limitation
– Reaction to Lenin’s internationalism
– “self-determination” applied only to Eastern Europe.
C. Chinese Situation in the 1910s and 1920s
(a) Post-Revolution Dictatorship
– New Ideology after 1912. ”Three Principles of the People” – care for people’s life (land redistribution), democracy, anti-Manchurian pro-Han.
– Yuan Shikai’s 袁世凱 dictatorship
– Japan’s 21 demands and thereafter
– Chinese sense as a victor, pro-ideal 公理 anti-power 強権
(b) Sun Yat Sen and his movment
– The birth of Kuomingtang 国民党 headed by Sun Yat Sen孫文
– Sense of international hierarchy (rankings) as attested by the Executive Council
– Further humiliation due to the territorial concessions of Dairen 大連 and Port Arthur 旅順 to Japan under the Washington Treaty
– Dual government in Guangdong 広東 and Beijing 北京
– Reprssion of strikes in Shanghai
– The death of Sun Yat Sen, collapse of the Beijing government and Warlords in the North
(c) Chiang Kai-shek
– The rise of Chiang Kai-shek 蒋介石 as the leader of the Kuomingtang
– Rivalry between the Communist party and the Kuomingtang
【Quesion】How would you describe the situation in China? Is it justifiable to call it a “semi-colony”?
3. New State Ideologies and Japan’s expansionism
A New Ideologies
(a) Democracy and Alternatives
– Expansion of democracy in the 1920s and decrease of democratic state in the 1930’s
– The Great Depression (1929)
– What to do with the poor
– Liberal Democracy / Fascism / Communism
– Japan as a fascist state.
(b) Proto-Independent State
– The Philippines in 1935 after independence negotiations with the US. Minor uprsings in the early 1930s and more major Maoist organizing in central Luzon in the late 1930s. Quezon’s co-opting of communist agendas.
– Burma in the late 1930s. Burmese prime ministership and party politics. Social confusion caused by massive strikes and agrarian uprising in the 1930s.
(c) Surveillance and Police State
– Korea in the late 1930s. Repression of the Korean culture, which expanded during “culutural era” in the name of “imperialization” 皇民化. – Good imperial vassels vs. the strengthening of the Korean people vs. Korean anti-colonial fighters. Massive mobilization of Koreans for Japan’s war efforts.
– Vietnam as anti-communist state, land owning class in the South, more support for communism in the North.
– Indonesia as a surveillance state – incarceration of nationalists.
C. Internal Conflicts in China and Japan’s involvement
1927 A brief united front between the nationalists and the communists over the situation in Shanghai.
1928 Kuomingtang’ revolutionary army advances northward to unify China; Japan dipatches troops to the Shandong Peninsula.
1932 The first Shanghai incident. The establishment of Manchu-kuo (Manchuria) by the Japanese. Protest by the Lytton Commission. Japan quits the League of Nations as a result.
1934 The communists start the “long march.”
1937 The Marco Polo Bridge incident, The Second Shanghai Incident, The Nanjing Massacre, Full-blown war between Japan and China. The Second United Front.
1940 Wang Zhaoming’s (汪兆銘、汪精衛)Pro-Japanese Nationalist Government in Nanjing.
– Continuous war in China not only until 1945 but until 1949.
A. In brief.
– Part of a war against the Kuomingtan after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
– Advancement from Shanghai to Nanjing (Capitol of the Kuomingtang)
– Lack of logistics
– Killing spree on the way to Nanjing and in the city of Nanjing. Map
– Question of numbers (30,000 vs. 150,000 vs. 300,000)
– Question of Plain-Clothe Guerrillas
B. War in China in Four Phases
Phase 1: “First Blow” theory, The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the Panay Incident, the Nanjing Massacre
Phase 2: Anti-KMT in Middle China,
Phase 3: Two Fronts, North and South, North-Communists, Battles of Khalkhin Gol (ノモンハン戦争)
Phase 4: War in China in the Asia-Pacific War, “Three Flashes” (三光作戦).
(a) Not much of a contrversy until the 1980s.
(b) Publications of primary documents: Journalism and interviews on the Chinese in Nanjing in the 1970s and Primary Japanese Documents in the 1980s.
(c) Controversies since the 1990s.
– More publications of primary documents: Documents submitted to Documents of Americans, Germans and Chinese Nationalists.
– School trips to Nanjing
– Azuma Shiro Trial
– Writings of Foot Soldiers (Yasukuni Shrine, Ono Kenji)
– Comic books
– Joint research
(d) Dying down of controversies for now.
【Question】Why is it that this particular issue is no longer a hot topic between Japanese and Chinese?
(History of China and Southeast Asia)
石川禎浩『革命とナショナリズム : 1925-1945』岩波新書, 2010.
池端, 雪浦他『岩波講座東南アジア史7巻 植民地抵抗運動とナショナリズムの展開』岩波書店, 2002.
笠原十九司『日中戦争全史』上下, 高文研, 2017.
(General Histories on Nanjing Massacre)
(On the controversy itself)
笠原十九司『南京事件論争史: 日本人は史実をどう認識してきたか』平凡社, 2018.
The publication of primary documents
Documents presented as evidences in the Tokyo Trial
Documents from the Japanese Central China Army. War-time journals from both officers and rank-and-file soldiers.
Documents related to the International Safety Zone such as letters of the missionary and reportage by foreign journalists who stayed in the zone.
Documents gathered by China specialists. Newspaper articles from both nationalist and communist newspapers, writings left by the victims, court documents from the Nanjing BC-Class Trial.
War-time journals left by the soldiers in the Yamada expeditionary force of the 13th division.
Perspectives from Nazi Germany. At that time, Germany was supporting the Chinese Nationalist Government and provided weapons and military aids. This compilation contains diplomatic documents sent by the German diplomats.
Ono Kenji’s published collections of letters and interviews.
(5) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War I: Sexual violence and Military “Comfort Women”
１．On “Comfort Women”
– What are their nationalities?
– Where did they work?
– Who had sex with them?
Locations of Comfort Stations
２． Military Forces that use Sexual Violence as a Weapon of War
– What is sexual violence?
– Can we consider prostitution as a form of sexual violence?
– Is there such a thing as sex work purely out of freewill?
– Does every military use sexual violence in one form or another?
– Under what circumstances can the free will of a sex worker guaranteed?
– Sexual violence as propaganda.
３. Imperial Japanese forces and Sexual Violence
（１）Interest raised by the “comfort women” issues.
A. Democracy vs. Fascism
-The ”Comfort Women” system in the Japanese forces
– Sexual exploitation of Jewish Women in concentration camps in Nazi Germany
– No apparent state-sponsored prostitution system for its soldiers for American, British, and Australian forces.
– Case of the landing of Normandy by the US forces.
– Germany’s extermination of the Hereros in Namibia, which involved sexual violence.
– Wide-spread use of military prostitution for the French colonial army from Algeria to Vietnam. Long distance travel.
– British violece against the Maumau incl. sexual violence
（２）Studies on Shanxi Province(山西省), China
– Location of the so-called “三光作戦”（three-flash operation）- Kill them all, burn them all, rob them all.
– The Japanese forces fighting against the Communist forces.
– Suppression from one village to another.
– The semi-underground fortresses (a Russian-sytle huge pillbox) of the Japanese forces overseeing a village.
【Memory】*Trailer for 鬼子来了”Devils on the Doorstep” (2000)
*The setting is different. 河北省Hebei Prov., locating next to Shanxi Prov. in the East.
– Kasahara Tokuji’s study: Based on village records, in-depth interviews on three Japanese soldiers.
– Ishida Yoneko’s study: building rapport with the former victims of sexual violence, helping them to sue the Japanese government in Japan. Reconstructing a war situation based on a narrative of an Okinawan soldier, who fought in Shanxi Prov. and by making references to post-war narrations of Japanese soldiers.
– Ban Zhongyi’s movie: A documentary film on one of the female communist village leaders.
【Memory】 Poems of the Japanese soldiers in Shanxi Prov.
【Question】 How can we justify the talk about the painful past?
４．Different kinds of sexual violence in Central Visayas, the Philippines.
Map1 Map2 of Central Visayas
Japan’s military Structure (Activated for War)
Division (25000) – 3 Inf. Battalions (3000) – 3 Companies (200) – 3 Platoons (50)
– Total of 12 investigated, 14 (15?) cases brought to trial
– Like the three-flash operation. Anti-guerrilla warfare. Travelling from one village to the next from July to December, 1943.
– Detailed by Kumai Toshimi, Intelligence Officer. Map
– Conducted by Tozuka Battalion, orchestrated by Intelligence Officers Watanabe Kengo and Watanabe Hidemi.
– Rigorously prosecuted after Japan’s surrender. Each incident involved the killing of tens to hundreds. Sporadic sexual violence in the charge.
– Some graphic details in the testimonies and interrogations.
– Watanabe Kengo killed in action. From the Battalion commander to the Platoon leaders, they were all found guilty and executed.
– The line of command is clear and most of the commanders and perpetrators were held responsible for the crimes by the Japanese soldiers.
– Most of the cases took place after Onishi Battalion took charge of the defense in June, 1944.
– Total of 31 cases investigated, 14 cases brought to trial.
A. Case 1: Cordova Case
– Commited By a patrol under Visayas Kempeitai, Cebu Unit
– Roundup of local residents, severe torture including sexual violence. One possible rape.
– Patrol commander YO and alleged rapist IS got executed.
– Methodical way of torture and sexual violence.
B. Case 2: Barili Case
– Local platoon, rounded up about 20 residents for guerrilla charges
– Without trial, they were executed in the end. However, prior to that, men were severely tortured and women were repeatedly raped.
– Written order from the 1st Company Commander Higashi.
– All the platoon members were executed.
C. Case 3: Medellin Case
– AS was the commander of a local company
– Co-existence with the guerrila.
– This delicate balance got toppled. One Jpn soldier got killed and another injured and sent to Cebu city.
– An expeditionary force was sent by 1st Company and it was headed by Higashi.
– Higashi’s force raided the villages in the vicinity on the way to get to Medellin, kidnapped Del Rio sisters and kept them with them for the next 10 days.
– Seeing Del Rio sisters in captivity, AS rescued one of them. It was ensued by a bickering with Higashi. Higashi being superior, she was returned to the unit.
– The Del Rio sisters were killed as Higashi departed Medellin.
– AS made a complaint to General Manjome, a superior officer of Onishi. Manjome did not do anything about it since Higashi was killed in combat in March, 1945.
– AS was executed.
D. Case 4: Minglanilla Case
– The biggest incident in terms of the number of casualties.
– 30 Chinese residents were raided by an outside unit at night in the inland village of Tubog. Several women got raped repeatedly.
– Company commander MZ of a Navy Transportation unit stationed in Mambaling, a coastal town, was accused for this crime.
– He was given a death sentence but petitioned by the people of Mambaling and eventually released.
– It was quite likely that a company under Onishi’s command was responsible. But Onishi was not prosecuted.
E. Regarding “Comfort Women”
– IS’s defense that he did not rape.
– BG’s testimony on behalf of the Japanese.
-The line of command: Onishi – Higashi – Other Company Commanders and Platoon Leaders
– Onishi was given a life in prison but survived and confirmed to have lived upto the 1970s.
– Higashi was killed in action.
– Probably, wrongfully accused, AS and MZ
– Total of 5 cases investigated, 3 cases brought to trial.
– Murder, violence and sexual violence committed by Japanese runaway soldiers after Aug. 1945.
– Possibility of cannibalism, but not pursued in the trial.
– No line of command.
【Question】 Would it be justifiable to compare different kinds of victims? Pros and Cons. If so, what categories shall we set up?
– Conceptual chart
（On Shanxi Province）
班忠義『ガイサンシー (蓋山西) とその姉妹たち』梨の木舎, 2011.
石田米子、内田知行『黄土の村の性暴力 : 大娘 (ダーニャン) たちの戦争は終わらない』創土社, 2004.
近藤一、石田米子他、『ある日本兵の二つの戦場 : 近藤一の終わらない戦争』社会評論社, 2005.
笠原十九司『南京事件と三光作戦 : 未来に生かす戦争の記憶』大月書店, 1999.
石井弓『記憶としての日中戦争 : インタビューによる他者理解の可能性』研文出版, 2013.
Mojares, Resil B., and Jose Eleazar R. Bersales, eds. The War in Cebu. Talamban, Cebu City, Philippines: University of San Carlos Press, 2015.
Sitoy, Adelino B. History of Cordova. Cebu City: Provincial Government of Cebu with the assistance of the University of San Carlos, 2014.
岡田泰平「日本軍「慰安婦」制度と性暴力―強制性と合法性をめぐる葛藤―」上野千鶴子, 蘭信三、平井和子編『戦争と性暴力の比較史へ向けて』岩波書店, 2018.
May 25 (6) (1941-1945) Asia Pacific War II: Mobilization [Comfort Women]
Basic Points from the Last Session
・Forced to have sex with a large number of Japanese soldiers
・”Comfort Stations” are quite widespread.
・Different nationalities incl. Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, Dutch, and Japanese
・Long Distance Travel for the Korean Comfort Women
・Organized at the order of the Japanese military
・Coercion (being forced) became a central issue
・How they were recruited is still controversial.
・Shock Value — the coming out of Kim Hak-sun (40:40)
２．The original narratives from a photo book by Ito Koji published in 1993.
Maria Rosa Henson
1965 Japan-Korea Treaty. Any impeding claims have been “completely and finally settled.”
1970-80 Books by Senda Kako千田夏光, Kim Ilu Myon金一勉, Yoshida Seiji吉田清治
1990.1.4-24 Yung Jong Ok published 4 reports in Hangyore Newspaper
1990.6.6 Japan’s labor ministry responded, “Comfort women were taken around by private companies”
1990.11.16 ”The Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan” was organized in Korea
1991.8.14 Kim Hak-sun came out
1991.12.6 Three comfort women incl. Kim Hak-sun filed a lawsuit againg the Japanese government along with other former Korean soliders and auxiliary workers.
1992.1.8 ”The Korean Council” held the first “Wednesday rally”
1992.1.11 Japanese Historian Yoshimi Yoshiaki disclosed documents on the Comfort Women from the National Defense Force Archives in Ichigaya, Tokyo.
1992.1.17 Prime Minister Miyazawa Kichi went to Korea and apologized several times.
1992.9.18 Maria Rosa Henson came out
1993.4.2 Maria Rosa Henson filed a law suit against the Japanese government
1993.8.4 Kono Statement
1993.11, 1994.7 51% of the Japanese showed consent to the individual compensation for the comfort women. 72% of them answered that Japan’s reparations were not enough
1994.8.31 Murayama Statement
1994.11.22 NGO ICJ issued a report claiming that the Japanese government fulfill its legal obligations.
1995 Yoshimi published Comfort Woman from Iwanami publisher
1995.7.19 The Asian Women’s Fund was established
1996.4.29 Commission of Human Rights, UN, “took note” of the Coomeraswamy, which recommended that Japan fulfill its legal obligations.
1996.8.14 The AWF dipensed “atonment money” to Rosa Henson and three other Filipino comfort women.
1996.12.15 Rosa Henson’s biography was published from Iwanami Published. The English translation was also published in the Philippines.
2000.12.8-12 The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery (mock-court) was held in Tokyo, which declared Japanese Emperor Hirohito as guilty.
2001.3.21 The “Comfort woman” compensation bill was submitted by the communists, socialists and democrats to the Upper Chamber of the Japanese Diet. (It was discussed briefly only once.)
2003.12.25 The Filipino Case was rejected at the Supreme Court。
2008.3 The Filipino national parliament endorsed a resolution on the compensation of “comfort women.” Similar resolutions in the US, European Union, Korean Parliament and Taiwanese Parliament.
2008.9.16 The Democratic Party of Japan became the ruling party (It lasted until 2012.12.26, but did not submit the “comfort woman” bill)
2011.8.30 The Korean Constitutional Court ruled the Korean Government guilty of not pursuing resolution against the Japanese Government.
2011.12.14 The Korean Council held the 1000th “Wednesday demonstration” and established a statue of a young girl in front of the Japanese Embassy.
2014.6.2 NGO Inter Asian Solidarity Movement disclosed “the recommendations for the Japanese Government”
2014.8.5-6 The Asahi Newspaper retracted articles relating to Yoshida Seiji.
2015.8.14 Prime Minister Abe’s 70th Anniversay Statement
2015.12.28 The Japan-Korea joint statement on the comfort woman issues.
2017.5 Moon Jae-in became Korean President
2018.7.16 ”The Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan” changed its name to “The Korean Council for Justice and Remembrance for the Issues of Military Sexual Slavery by Japan.”
2018.11 The Korean Government dissolved the foundation as stiputed in Dec. 2015.
４．Reflecting upon the recent critique of former Comfort Woman Lee Yong-su
・Directed against the director of Korean Council for Justice and Remembrance for the Issues of Military Sexual Slavery by Japan
・Financial wrong doings
・Prevented the former comfort women from receiving the Japanese money
・This group has incited “hate” between Korea and Japan.
・This group endorsed the intentional confusion between the labor mobilization of women and “comfort women”
【Question】 What do you think is going to happen to the issue of “comfort women”?
（A partial list of references, mostly less known ones）
Galang, M. Evelina. Lolas’ House : Filipino Women Living with War. Northwestern University Press, 2017.
モーリス・スズキ, テッサ, 玄武岩 , 植村隆『「慰安婦」問題の境界を越えて : 連合国軍兵士が見た戦時性暴力、各地にできた<少女像>、朝日新聞と植村元記者へのバッシングについて』寿郎社, 2017.
安世鴻著・写真, 植田祐介訳『重重 : 中国に残された朝鮮人日本軍「慰安婦」の物語』大月書店, 2013.
伊藤孝司『破られた沈黙 : 写真記録 : アジアの「従軍慰安婦」たち』風媒社, 1993.
和田春樹『アジア女性基金と慰安婦問題 : 回想と検証』明石書店, 2016.
(7) (1940s-1990s) Asia Pacific War III: Mobilization and Aftermath [Mobilization in Korea, Injured auxiliary workers, BC Class War Criminal]
１．Different Kinds of Colonialism in the 1930s.
（１）Photo image of 1945
（２）Three Kinds of state in the 1930s, emerging as a result of the Great Depression
– Liberalism – Strong State, welfare, economically robust, private property but strong redistribution incentive, US, UK, France
– Fascism – Racial others and minority groups as public enemies, nationalized economy, survival ideology, Germany, Italy and Japan. Spain to a lesser extent.
– Communist State – Anti-thesis to both Liberalism and Fascism, capitalism as evil, total state-control. Soviet Union and its influences in Eastern Europe.
（３）Colonies and outside of Europe
– Korea and Taiwan – Under Fascist Japan. Their populations were heavily mobilized.
– The Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) – Police state under the Dutch administration and represseion and exile of nationalists and communists
– The French Indo-China (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) – Starvation in 1944-45, communist uprisings in the 1940s and a war against France.
– The Philippines, Burma, Malaya – Flourishing consumerism, semi-independence and compromised ideology: too poor to become a welfare state and adopted some of communist ideologies.
（４）Different War Experiences
– Major battle grounds: China, the Philippines, Burma
– Japanese Atrocities against the Chinese: Singapore
– Co-occupational or neutral territories: Indochina, Thailand
– Japanese military rule: Sumatra, Java (Indonesia)
– Local Population mobilized in a massive scale: Korea, Taiwan, Java
– Koreans: Some soldiers, auxiliary workers (prison guards and interpreters. “comfort women”? ), laborers
– Taiwanese: Settlement company employees, soldiers, auxiliary workers (prison guards in the Philippines and Borneo), laborers
– No comprehensive study has been done on the Koreans or Taiwanese in Southeast Asia.
２．Mobilization in Korea
（１）Traditional leftist narrative
A. State planning in 1939: “recruitment”募集
B. Quota system in 1941: Top-down labor placement in each village 官斡旋
C. Conscription in 1944 徴用例
– The total number: 720,000 or 1,110,000.
– Ethnic Koreans in Japan as the victims of “Forced Labor”
– “Being picked up by policemen (or military police) at the bayonett point, loaded on trucks and brought over to Japan.”
（２）Koreans outside of the Korean Peninsula by the end of WWII: 1.9 million in Japan, 2.1 million in Northeastern part of china
– Push factors: poverty
– Pull factors: higer wages in Japan, higher education opportunities in Japan, occupations in modern sectors
– Interviews: Representative ones as “coersion” narrative, especially in the the 1940s and 50s. The “Koreans” as “Allies.” This narrative became wide spread. Others claiming that “Forced Labor” should be a legally defined concepts.
– Book entitled “Grandfather, tell me what happened on that day,” published in 1988. Almost no “coersion” narrative. Most of the narratives: for money making.
– Most of them went back to Korea after Japan’s defeat.
【Question】Why do you think the “coercion” narrative is so widespread and strong among the Koreans even to this day?
（４）New Historical Account
– Focus on the policy level
– Administrative structure and police density: More dense in Japan than in Korea
– Most of the people could not understand Japanese (at most 22%). Very few radios, newspapers and magazines compared with Japan.
A. State planning in 1939: Japan’s national mobilization law 国家総動員法. National labor placement plan. State planning in Korea: Corporations as recruitors and policemen as record keepers. Reorganization of recruitment centers. Not enough applicants. Many Korean related labor disputes in Japan. Mobilization plan on the Japanese in Japan: 425,000.
B. Quota system in 1941: Moblization plan on the Japanese: 2.2 million. Arguments on unmobilized surplus population in Korea. Dilemma: Korea as a major rice exporting area. The ideology of “Superb Imperial Workers” and its contradiction on the non-Japanese speaking Koreans. Restriction of the Korean inflow into Japan but the implementation of the quota system. Two methods: official village labor recruiter (collaborated with policemen) and village initiatives by the village head.
C. Conscription in 1944 徴用例: Moblization plan on the Japanese (1943) 2.4 million. Mobilization plan on the Japanese and Koreans in Korea (1943) 440,000 (Japanese 18,000). Mobilizing students and women. Korean volunteer solidiers and auxiliary workers (1943): 10,000. More administrative staff members throughout Korea and more rigourous residential registration. Unusual improvment of quota-filling records => recruitor’s reports: the same as conscription.
– Labor Condition: Concentration of Koreans in mines (22% of the work force). Extention of contract beyond 2 years. An increase of runaway Korean laborers and the use of detention by the corporation. Decreasing labor disputes. More disputes between the Korean middle men and the corporation. More “effective” management on the part of the corporation. Lower productivity.
– Final mobilization plan on the Japanese (1944) : 4.5 million. Grievances of the Koreans (Secret Police Rports): shortage of food, no communication with the family members in Korea, hiding out from the labor conscription, labor mismatch of the educated, sabotage. The state’s efforts to improve the labor condition: Familiy support groups, not applicable to the Koreans in Phases A and B, one time payment for the Korean family partly applicable to the Koreans in Phases A and B.
– Why did the Korean mobilization “fail”? No funding source secured, quota system and antagonism from below, distrust of Koreans towards the end of the war.
– About 6500 under Phase A in 1945. A Japanese manager in the Colonial government: Cases of abduction by policemen with trucks. “Rice was taken, people were taken. They were cursing war. The policy was upheld thanks to policemen.”
３．The Korean BC Class War Criminals.
– Recruited in 1943. About 3000.
– Contract, 2 yrs, good salary
– Work — prison guards, forcing the Allied POW to work.
– Recruitment—Coercion, free-will, or in-between?
– Training in Pusan—Soldier’s training including slapping. there was no education on the international treaties regarding POW.
– In the Japanese Army—the lowest rank.
– Different locations, Ambon (Air field), Thai-Burma Railways, Camps for Civilian Internees in Sumatra.
– BC class war crimes trials—148 found guilty, 23 executed.
– As a war criminal—Harsh treatment in the Allied prisons
– The Shimomura statement—blaming on their “ethnic characters”
– Transfer to Sugamo Prison
– Hunger Strike
– 2 Persons committing Suicide
– A wife of a Korean BC class criminal killed herself in Korea.
– A death in a mental hospital
– Demands: Collection of the bones and shipping them back to the family members in Korea.
– Social movement—demanding compensation and apology from the Japanese government
– Filed a lawsuit against the Japanese government in 1991. Lost the case in 1999.
【Question】What is the historical significance of the Korean BC Class War Criminals?
Utsumi Aiko, Sugamo Prison (内海愛子『スガモプリズン―戦犯たちの平和運動』吉川弘文館, 2004)
–How some of the BC class war criminals become “peace activists.”
Utsumi Aiko, Why was Kim tried in court? (内海愛子『キムはなぜ裁かれたか―朝鮮人ＢＣ級戦犯者の軌跡』朝日新聞出版, 2008)
–A detailed history of the Korean BC class war criminals.
Utsumi Aiko, Thinking about Japan and Asia from the War Compensation Issues（内海愛子『戦後補償から考える日本とアジア』山川出版社, 2002）
–An overview of the war compensation issues
Tonomura Masaru, Forced mobilization of Koreans (外村大『朝鮮人強制連行』岩波書店, 2012)
June 9 (8) (1940s-1990s) Japan’s Postwar System [Tokyo Trial, SF peace treaty, Japan’s compensation scheme]
（１）Wars in the 20th Century
・Naming wars in Asia
・Wada Haruki’s Two Categories: Japan’s Invasion Wars (upto 1945) and Asian Wars (after 1945)
・Wars and postwar trials
・Four kinds of historical understanding:
a. History as description of what happened
b. History as legalistic progress (Human Rights)
– History as a protest against status quo
c. History as changing international system
d. History as a collection of personal narratives
（２）The Tokyo Trial
A. Name: The International Military Tribunal for the Far East. Period: May 3, 1946 to November 12, 1948
B. Judges: USA, Britain, France, China, Canada, Australia, The Netherland and New Zealand as of December 28, 1945. The Soviet representatives arrived on April 13, 1946. The Filipino and Indian judges were added to the panel. They respectively arrived on May 17 and June 13 of 1946.
C. Prosecution: International Prosecuting Section consisting of members from the above eleven nations. Most of the prosecutors were Americans.
a. Suspects: 28 Japanese. All of them were found guilty and seven of them got executed. Defendants were mostly military men (mostly in the army), but also included politicians Hiranuma, Kido and Hirota, diplomats Togo and Shigemitsu and nationalist ideologue Okawa. Emperor Hirohito was not prosecuted.
b. Defense lawyers: Americans and Japanese.
c. A’ Suspects: Other than these 28 suspects, the IPS’s apprehended about 60 war crimes suspect, which included a member of the royal family, politicians, bureaucrats, military men, nationalist ideologues and industrialists.
E. Characteristics of the Trial
– There was no additional Tokyo trial and A’ suspects never got prosecuted.
– Military tribunal: No upper court and no chance to appeal. The sentences were approved by General Douglas McArthur.
– Notions of A, B and C: A Crimes against Peace / B: Conventional War Crimes / C: Crimes against Humanity
– The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, a trial against the Nazis.
– This trial took place from November 12, 1945 to October 1, 1946, lasting less than a year.
– Judges came from only four nations US, UK, France and Soviet Union and, as a result, 12 German defendants were sentenced to death. However, there were 12 additional trials under the authorities of the military government of the United States in Germany and the Postwar German Government. Other European trials against Nazi Germany are understudied.
（３）Other War Trials:
A. BC class military tribunals – much greater in scale, but understudied
# of trials/# of the suspects/# of the guilty # of the executed/Places/Prosecuting nations
Tokyo Trial: 1/28/26/7/Ichigaya/11 nations
BC class: 2244/5700/3419/984/Many places in East and SE Asia/US, Br. Au., Nr, Fr, Phi, Nat. Chi, Com Chi.
*BC class trials included many of the Japanese atrocity cases in the Philippines.
B. The case of the Philippines:
– Two Kinds of BC Class tribunals (U.S., The Philippine Government)
– People’s Court – against the Filipino Collaborators for the Japanese Forces. (The Phil. Govt.)
– The Vargas and Laurel Collaboration Case (The Phil. Govt.)
（４）Issues prosecuted and not prosecuted
Bataan Death March
Biological and chemical Warfare
Comfort women (sexual violence was mentioned in some parts and prosecuted at the BC class trials, but certainly not the “comfort women” system.)
Air raids on civilian populations
Japan’s colonialism. (For that matter, nothing on colonialism by any empire.)
War crimes committed by the Allies
C. Place of Korea
– It did not have independent trials.
– It did not participate in the prosecuting side.
– Some of its auxiliary workers and few military men were prosecuted as Japanese (Korean BC class war criminals).
【Question】Why? What are the implications of this absence?
（５）Japan’s Postwar System
A. SF Peace Treaty
Article 14, Secs. 1 and 2 on bilateral treaties
Article 16 on POW
Article 19 on damages on Japanese
a. Individual Compensation only for the Allied POW.
b. No statement about what and to whom Japan should pay.
c. Bilateral treaties as the closure to the war related issues with Japan.
(d. No article or statement about what the State of Japan should do with its own citizens.)
B. Politics of bilateral treaties
– Reparations and Semi-reparations
– Then, they were followed by ODA
C. Japan Compensation Scheme
a. Annual Pension for the Veterans 恩給法改正(1953)
– Only for military leaders and soldiers.
– Rank based, i.e. generals got paid much more than foot soldiers or auxiliary workers.
– Expanding base (soldiers themselves, wives, parents, children, grand-children).
– Nationality Clause: Excluding non-Japanese.
– Conservatives: Too many victims to include civilians (3.1 Japanese died); Liberals: This should be social security.
b. Compensation for War Injuries and Surviving Family Members of War-Related Deaths 遺族等援護法(1952)
– Eligible insofar as the person had contractual relations with the Japanese military.
– Japanese civilian victims were excluded. Ex. Victims of the Tokyo Airraid (100,000)
– Nationality Clause: Excluding non-Japanese.
D. Other laws for particular victims
– Atomic Bomb Victims: No nationality clause – eventually included the Korean victims
E. Payment differential
For the Japanese: Annual Pension (a) ＋Compensation (b) = 32 trillion yen
For Foreigners: Bilateral Treaties (650 billion yen)+ Japanese factories and other resources (400 billion yen)=0.1 trillion yen
Questions of ODA? 1.77 = trillion yen (1978-2010)
0.6 to 1 trillion yen (80% of which are individual compensation for foreign victims)
（６）Injured Korean Soldiers and Auxiliary Workers
Ohima Nagisa’s Forgotten Imperial Soldiers（忘れられた皇軍）
– Some of them obtained Japanese citizenship. (The same with some of the BC Class War Criminals)
– Onetime payment in the early 2000. (4.2 mil. yen for the surviving members of the dead; 2.0 mil. yen for the survivors.)
– This included residential clause.
【Question】 If you were Japan’s Prime Minister, what would you have done differently?
大沼保昭. 1975. 戦争責任論序説: 「平和に対する罪」の形成過程におけるイデオロギー性と拘束性. 東京: 東京大学出版会.
———. 1985. 東京裁判から戦後責任の思想へ. 東京: 有信堂高文社.
東京裁判ハンドブック編集委員会『東京裁判ハンドブック』青木書店, 1989. [Tokyo Trial Handbook]
– Although sometimes unbalanced, this book covers the basic framework that instituted the Tokyo Trial.
– It also covers the BC Class trials and war responsibility issues.
粟屋憲太郎『東京裁判への道』講談社, 2006.[Kentaro Awaya, The Road to the Tokyo Trial]
– The original work was a TV program under the same title, broadcast in 1994.
– Awaya’s groundbreaking research on IPS.
– This work is revealing especially on the trade off between the US and Japanese militarists on biological and chemical weapons.
– As a historical work, this was the first research to interrogate why Emperor Hirohito was not prosecuted.
[Aiko Utsumi, “Wartime Sexual Violence and the Tokyo Trial”]
-She cites many instances of testimonies during the proceedings. In the discussion on the Nanjing Massacre, the witnesses testified the Japanese soldiers have committed mass rape more than they can count.
-There were almost no instance that mentioned “comfort women,” especially of the Korean women. One exception was the case that took place in Semerang, Indonesia.
日暮吉延『東京裁判』講談社, 2008. [Yoshinobu Higurashi, The Tokyo Trial]
-The Tokyo Trial is seen as a matter of international politics. For example, there were disputes among the Allied powers on the decision not to prosecute Emperor Hirohito. He also asks why the second Tokyo trial did not take place.
-He posits basic dichotomies: “Judgement of the Civilized World” 「文明の裁き」or “Victors’ Justice”「勝者の裁き」, defense for the nation or defense of the suspect himself, conspiracy or inhuman crimes, “war of aggression”「侵略戦争」or “war of self-defense” 「自衛戦争」.
-An extended examination on Radhabinod Pal’s judgement. He regards Pal as a defender of legal positivism.
Yuma Totani. The Tokyo War Crimes Trial: The Pursuit of Justice in the Wake of World War II. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008. (戸谷由麻『東京裁判―第二次大戦後の法と正義の追求―』みすず書房, 2008.)
-She argues that the Tokyo trial set the precedents for the international law.
-She unearthed the sections of the trial where sexual violence was rather rigorously examined.
-Finally, her arguments rest on the assertion that more research should be done on the war crimes trials. There are so many documents that were produced in the process, but the historians have not really delved into these documents.
June 16 (8) (1940s-1972) East Asia under U.S. Hegemony: Base Politics and Okinawa; Decolonization and Statebuilding in Southeast and East Asia: Different types of decolonization and its memories
(１）Place of Communism in History
– Colonialism: a. racial discrimination, b. collaborators (elite)
– Asian Communism: a. founded in the 1920s and 30s, b. commmunists = anti-colonial nationalists, c. anti-collaborators (by way of anti-capitalism)
– Universalist understanding of the World History (more emphasis on class differences than national differences)
– Separate peace: nation building and independence for the communist block; the San Francsico Peace Treaty system for the capitalist block.
（２）Communism in Asia
– China: United Front with the Nationalists – Anti-Japanese struggle – Bitter struggle against the Nationalists -Mismanagement and corruption on the part of the Nationalists – Independence in 1949 – Mao Zedong and the lionization of his image.
– Korea: Different occupations, North by the Soviet Union and South by the United States. Kim Il-Sung金日成 – one of the guerrilla leaders protege of the Soviet Union; Syngman Rhee李承晩 – active mostly in the United States, anti-communist, thug type; Kim Gu金九 (assassinated) – modest right-wing, strong belief in Confucianism; Lyuh Woon-hyung 呂運亨 (assassinated) – left wing, communist since 1920. Divided states.
– Vietnam: Ho Chi Ming as an extremely effective leader (no mass killing in his name unlike Mao or Kim Il-Sung) ; three wars against major powers (France, US, China) and victory over them. Satellite communist states: Cambodia and Laos.
– Myanmer (Burma): Aung San (Pro-Japanese to Anti-Japanese revolt to peace negotiator with the British) – the assacination of Aung San – social unrest due to ethnic revolts, communist uprising, incursion of the Nationalist Chinese from the north – Unity under Ne Win one of the generals of the National Army – declaration of the Burmese Style Socialism.
=> Communism as state-building and the alternative to capitalism.
（３）Communists and Postwar Issues
– Koreans in Japan as a major components of the communist movement in Japan.
– Their perception: capitalists = imperialists / the masses = they should be and will become communists. Ex. Anti-Yoshida, Anti-Rhee, Anti-McArthur.
– The Communist Chinese perception of the Japanese: War leaders are responsible and should be guilty; foot soldiers are victims; Communist Chinese BC Class War Crimes Tribunals – Admission of Guilt 認罪as paramount importance (clear contrast to the BC Class War Crimes Tribunals by the Americans, British and Dutch), Yasukuni Shrine as a clear challenge to this world view.
– The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) waived reparations from Japan, but accepted ODAs (3 trillion yen) and perceived it as semi-reparation until the 1990s.
– The postwar issues in the 1950s:
a. The Liu Lianren劉連仁 Case (He was hiding for 13 years in Hokkaido and filed a case against the state of Japan in the 1990s.)
b. The Hanaoka Case The Story of Hanaoka (Wood print as a communication tool.)
【Question】Is there anything better in the Communist world view? What are the remaining effects of this world view? Are we ever going back to the Communist world view?
A. The San Francisco Treaty System in International Relations
– US centered alliances Japan-US, Korea-US, ANZUS (Australia-New Zealand – US)
– Containment against Communist China
– Very detailed blueprint in the late 1940s.
– In the treaty itself, articles became very simplified and ambiguous. (Articles 2 and 3)
– The Acheson line issued January 1950.
– Frontier states (South Korea and Taiwan); second line state (Japan)
– Dokdo (Takeshima), Okinawa and the Daoryu (Senkaku) archipelago as disputed territories, Dokdo between Korea and Japan and the Daoryu archipelago among Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan.
– Evacuation of the Okinawans and the US forces’s take over of their land as their bases.
– US-Japan Security Pact (signed in 1951, renewd in 1961)
– Okinawa under the US protectorate from 1952 to 1972.
– Japan as light arms, developmental state (pro-economic growth).
– US bases in Japan and Okinawa => 73.3% of US bases in Japan in Okinawa (0.6% of Japan’s land mass)
C. US Bases as new sites of occupation?
– Deportation of local residents
– Dumping of illegal chemicals
– Criminal cases of US soldiers and extraterritorial jurisdiction
– Expanding red-light districts and sex work
– Negative perception against the United States
– Becoming targets in case of enemy attacks
– Undue participation in the US’s invasion against foreign territories.
(Okinawa Prefecture’s Washington Office)
– (U.S.) Undue influences upon the states with the US bases.
– (Hosting states) National securiy, sometimes policing against domestic terrorists.
– (Japan and Western Europe) Keeping the host society without militarization.
– Friendship between the military forces.
D. Politics of Memory in Okinawa
– A site of major land battle in the battle of Japan.
– Middle Schools students (13 -15 yrs old) recruited as imperial Japanese soldiers
– Death of civilians: The Tsushima Maru Incident, Okinawa Malaria Case, Suicide of civilians forced by the Japanese forces, flame throwers* of the US forces and rape by the American soldiers. 90,000 out of 200,000 deaths were Okinawan civilians. 2,500~10,000 Korean auxiliary workers.
– The “Heiwa no Ishiji” Peace monument 平和の礎 Itoman City’s PR video Stats on the deceased.
– The Korean Monument in the same peace park. 韓国人慰霊碑
* Sanctioned by the international law
【Question】 What are the pros and cons of mourning the dead without separating them in terms of nationality?
岡部牧夫他『中国侵略の証言者たち : 「認罪」の記録を読む』岩波新書, 2010.
加藤聖文『「大日本帝国」崩壊 : 東アジアの1945年』中央公論新社, 2009.
原貴美恵『サンフランシスコ平和条約の盲点 : アジア太平洋地域の冷戦と「戦後未解決の諸問題」』溪水社, 2012.
(Hara’s Summary Article)
Cooley, Alexander. Base Politics : Democratic Change and the U.S. Military Overseas. Cornell University Press, 2008.
Vine, David. Base Nation : How U.S. Military Bases Abroad Harm America and the World. Henry Holt and Company, 2015.
June 23 (10) (1940s-1980s) Global History of the Indochina War［Memories and Activism of the Americans and Koreans］
（１）Two modes of state-nation building in East and Southeast Asia during the Cold War
A. Developmentalist States:
– Alliance between the national elite and global corporations
– Armed forces primarily for internal. domestic security
– Strong support by the United States and Japan
– Export oriented economy.
– Some more successful than others (Some more benign than others): Lee Kuan Yew (Singapore), Park Chung-hee 朴正煕 (S. Korea), Chiang Ching-kuo 蒋経国 (Taiwan), Mahatir (Malaysia), Pibulsonggram (Thailand), Suharto (Indonesia), Ferdinando Marcos (The Philippines)
– Moblization of the masses
– Most of them democratized in the late 1980s and 1990s
B. Communist States
– Emphasis on equality and the removal and replacement of colonial elites.
– Influences of the Chinese revolution
– Communism as the justification of revolution and expansionist orientation.
– Self-reliance as of primal importance
– Anti-liberalism: No free press, no freedom of thought.
【Question】 Why do you think the postcolonial states in East Asia took the path of developmentalism as opposed to Latin America or Africa?
A. Brief Note
1945 Aug. August Revolution. Communist uprising in Hanoi, Hue, and Saigon => Establishment of Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
1946-1954 The First Indochina war. A war against France, which lasted until the Geneva Treaty in 1955.
1965-1975 The Second Indochina war. Between Vietnam and the US. The war later expanded into Cambodia and Laos. It continued until the fall of the Saigon government.
1978-1979 The Third Indochina war. Vietnam attacked Pol Pot’s Cambodia and China invaded Vietnam as punishment. China lost.
B. Concepts: The Domino Theory, Social Development, “Socialism that shares poverty,” liberation front, strategic villages, periphery, Détente, Pol Pot
C. The Second Indochina War
The 1954 Geneva Treaty: US, Soviet, Britain, France and China divided Vietnam at 17 degrees north latitude.
North – Democratic Republic, South – Pro-France, Catholic
1957: Stabilized Saigon government under US support, “a miracle of Vietnam”
North – unification of the “vietnamese” people; South – Oppression of the communist elements.
South – Favoritism of the Catholics, The “barbecue statement”
1961 Communists in Laos and the Southward push of the Vienamese liberation front.
1963 The Guerrilla warfare and the defeat of the Saigon army
1964 The Gulf of Tonkin Incident and US’s “retaliation”
1964 Southward movement of People’s Army, formalized armed forces of the North.
b. 1965-1968 All-out war.
The US: “The enemy should know that there is no way that they can win”
Vietnam: Ho Chi Ming, “Nothing is more sacred than independence and freedom,” self-consciousness of being in the periphery.
Mass mobilization ang guerrilla tactics
Massive aerial bombardment by the US, three times the amount of bombs dropped during WWII.
The Tet Offensive, and severe casualties on both sides – a watershed in this war.
Anti-War movement in the US
Expansion of the warfront to Cambodia.
c. The last phase
Attacks by the North, Failure of the Paris treaty, Christmas bombing, Cease-fire in 1973.
The last days of the Saigon government: economic crisis, reduction of US suppoprt, the fall of the Saigon government.=> Unification of Vietnam by the North.
d. Vietnam War as a global war.
– 3 mil. deaths
– Deaths in the battle field: 171,331 for the Saigon government, 45,662 for the US forces, 5,221 for the US allies, 851,000 for the revolutionary forces.
Japan: The strategic importance of Okinawa and Guam, R&R
Korea: 320,000 troops sent, 5000 killed, many victims of Agent Orange
The Philippines: few thousand engineers sent, refusal to allow the US to use its bases in the Philippines, internal security.
（３）Civic Activism in the 1970s.
– Anti-Park student movement, suppression <=> Koreans-in-Japan as suspect, anti-Japan-Korea trety (1965)
– Massive US and Japanese aid => technological development => economic development
– Self-immolation as a protest => mourning as a protest.
– The 1990s-2000s: New development: Koreans in Vietnam
– Supporting the conscientious objectors in Japan
-Knock all the doors (Asking everyone to be involved).
-Stay at your friend’s house.
-Japanese activists were protected under the Security Treaty while the American deserters faced court marshal.
-Gray zone of legality
-Three phases of JATECH: 1) Intrepid Four and Soviet Route, 2) Two deserters through European Route, 3) Policy change to destroy the US army thorough internal dissents.
-Activism was in the air.
-Internationalism with Europeans, Vietnamese, racial minority in Europe.
Beheiren’s policy “Individual principles” 個人原理
-“Do whatever you like”
-“Don’t waste time criticizing others.”
-“First say, first do.”
-No vertical structure or rigid organization. It was all about making connections. More than 350 Beheiren chapters were organized including those by non-Japanese residents in Japan.
Connections to the post-war reparation movements
– Prof. Utsumi — Tsurumi Yoshiyuki => Attention to Southeast Asia
– JATECH members like Suzuki Michihiko — support of a Korean deserter Kim Dong Hi 金東希 and trying to understand crimes of ethnic Koreans in Japan like Kim Kiro 金嬉老 and Lee Jin U 李珍宇.
– Committee to establish Asian People’s Court to Hold Japan its War Responsibilities. アジア民主法廷
– Takahashi Taketomo, Taguchi Yuji田口裕史(writer, tutoring school teacher), Utsumi Aiko内海愛子(Scholar of ethnic Koreans and Korean BC class War Criminals), Yoshida Yutaka 吉田裕(Historian), Yoshimi Yoshiaki吉見義明 (non-member?, Historian, a foremost figure of “comfort women” research), Ishida Yu石田雄 (Sociologist)
-The death of Showa emperor and no mention of his war responsibility.
“This people’s court will disclose historical facts of Japan’s invasion. … and make them part of people’s history. “
c. US anti-war movement
– The My Lai case – massking of 504 villagers.
– About 300 similar cases.
– Court Martial – light punishment.
–“Winter Soldier Investigation”
【Questions】What do you think are the limitations of each social movement?
Vietnam Veterans Against the War. The Winter Soldier Investigation : An Inquiry into American War Crimes. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972.
Hunt, Michael H., and Steven I. Levine. Arc of Empire : America’s Wars in Asia from the Philippines to Vietnam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012.
アジアに対する日本の戦争責任を問う民衆法廷準備会. 1998. 『時効なき戦争責任: 裁かれる天皇と日本.』緑風出版.
アジアに対する日本の戦争責任を問う民衆法廷準備会. 1998. 『戦争責任: 過去から未来へ.』緑風出版.
高橋武智『私たちは、脱走アメリカ兵を越境させた…: ベ平連/ジャテック、最後の密出国作戦の回想』作品社, 2007.
鶴見俊輔, 池沢夏樹, 内海愛子, 熊岡路矢, 中村尚司, 宮内泰介, 村井吉敬, 吉岡忍『歩く学問ナマコの思想』コモンズ,2005.
ビルトン, マイケル, ケヴィン・シム著, 藤本博訳『ヴェトナム戦争ソンミ村虐殺の悲劇 : 4時間で消された村』明石書店, 2017.（ Michael Bilton,
Kevin Sim, Four hours in My Lai）
June 30 (11) (1970s-1990s) Post-Cold War Memory Issues: Terror and “Victimhood”
1. Optimism on History
A. No more war between major powers.
a. Weapons became to powerful (MAD theory)
b. Trade relations became too dense and mutually dependent.
c. No fluidity in international relations. Nation-states are there to stay.
d. Powerful supra-national organizations, which go beyond national values. Ex. the European Union.
B. Better conditions
– Longer lifespan, more happiness in measurement, less frequent wars, fewer crimes, <=> more income disparity
– Massive reduction of poverty, esp. in China.
C. Increasing IQ.
2. International laws against sexual violence.
A. International Criminal Courts in Yugoslavia and Rwanda
B. Permanent International Criminal Courts
C. Defining sexual violence
3. New Wars
A. Wars conducted not by national army but but by security firms.
a. No compliance to international laws or treaties.
b. Not under the oversight of international bodies, particularly the United Nations
c. Questions and legitimacy of UN peacekeeping, esp. in terms of sexual violence
B. Chemical weapons as the poorman’s “weapons of mass destruction”
a. International treaties to ban the use and production of them.
b. The use of sarin gas in Syria.
C. AI weapons
a. What is AI?
b. How it works.
– Sensor-Actuator model
– Primary intellectual background: logic, game theory, statistics
– Secondary tools: deep learning, natural language processing, graphic processing
c. Philosophical issues:
– People might lose their jobs to automation.
– People have too much (or too little) leisure time.
– People might lose their sense of being unique.
– AI systems might be used toward undesirable ends.
– The use of AI systems might result in a loss of accountability.
– The success of AI might mean the end of the human race.
d. Cautions against AI weapons “Slaughter bots”
D. Questions of China
– Thucydides’s Trap
– Stronger China: economy, military and technology
– Patterns of succession of power
– Keys for Successful Cases: similar culture, concessions by the former power, smart politicians, lopsided power (economy only), MAD, Supra-political entity, proxy wars but not between the major powers.
【Questions】Are you an optimist or a pessimist regarding human progress in the 21st century?
3. The 21st century history of Middle East
A. Rise of terrorism in Middle East
B. Islamic state (2014)
– Disregard for human lives
– Public executions on the web
– Their plan to establish Caliphate
– Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, Jordanian, a lawless type, no respect for Islam
– Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Iraqi, Ph.D. in Islamic Law from Iraq Islamic University
– Anti-Shiite(10% of Muslims)
– Foreign Fighers (Not devout muslims)
– Exporting terrorism.
Ex. The Battle of Marawi
C.Iraq War (2003)
– No justification, (No weapons of mass destruction)
– Ensuing civil war in Iraq
– The Shiite dominance in the postwar Iraq
– The Shiite-Sunni rivalry in politics and then in armed struggles.
– Relatively high GDP but massive corruption
– Loss of moral, given the destruction of their country by the US.
D. September 11th (2001)
– Four simultaneous attacks that killed about 3000 Americans and other nationalities.
– The perpetrators were highly educated.
– US attacks on Al Queda in Afghanistan
– Killing of Osama bin Ladin in Pakistan by the US Navy Seals under the Obama administration (2011)
E. Arab Springs (2011)
– It started in Tunisia, self-immolation (anti-Muslim)=> The collapse of the Ben Ali administration (a dictator for the past 30 years).
– From Arab nationalism to long one-family rule (republican states), needless to say “kingdoms.”
– Spreading to other countries with similar dictatorship.
– No consolidation of political power
– Taking over of power by the Muslim Brotherhood (Islamic welfare + armed struggle).
– A failure in Syria. The Asad regime (supported by Russia) vs. the Arab Spring + the Islamic State + the Kurds (endorsed by the US, watched by Turkey with apprehension)
F. Forgotten issue: The Palestinian Issue
– It used to be at the most serious, unresolved issue.
– Goal: the establishment of a Palestinian state (“real” nation-state, which required concessions from Israel.)
G. Victimhood more important than nation-states: Shiite-victimized by the Saddam Hussein’s regime and IS; Sunna-victimized by the US; Islamic masses – victimized by dictators; Syrian people – victimized by the Asad regime and to a lesser extent by Europe
4. Victimhood mentality
A. Other examples: systemic and economic racism in the US – the end of American dream and individualism, denial of dead white men in the early 20th century from Theodore Roosevelt to Woodrow Wilson
(Lim Jie-Hyun’s theory on Victimhood Nationalism)
B. Basic framework
a. Spatial expansion: global space, meeting points of Holocaust, colonial genocide and Stalinism
b. Post-Cold War period
c. Cross-referencing (and lack thereof) of different victimhood
C.In the period after WWII:
a. Immdiately afte the end of WWII: Victimhood emphasized for the people of the Axis nations, Germans, Japanese and Italians / Heroism emphasized for the Allied powers.
b. Early examples of connecting victims (1960s).
– Equating the plight of the Blacks in the US to Holocaust
– Japanese like Honda Katsuichi (journalist) or Tomi Horao (historian) became interested in the Nanjing massacre by seeing American atrocities in Vietnam.
c. Later examples (1990s)
– Comfort women juxtaposed with mass rape victims in Yugoslavia and Rwanda
– Victims of the Nazi equating with those of Communism
d. Internationalism of the deniers: from Holocaust and “comfort women” to white racism in Australia, Nanjing massacre, Apartheid, inhuman acts of regular German armies, the My Lai massacre
– Emphasis on conspiracy: some books are written to defame certain nations.
– Picking on “minor” mistakes (esp. photos)
d. Activists of memory
– Connecting the past issue to the present. Ex. “comfort women” to sexual victims under the Islamic terrorists, namely the Yazidi sex-slaves and girls kidnapped by Boko Haram.
– (Before) peace-activists digging into the nation’s past human rights violations.
【Question】As a basic framework for historical thinking, is “victimhood” (i.e. violations of human rights) an ideal concept? Namely, should we write history to describe “victimhood” rather than glory (of a nation)? How does “victimhood” connect with “identity”?
Allison, Graham T. Destined for War : Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap? Mariner Books: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2018.
Ferguson, Niall. Civilization : The West and the Rest. New York: Penguin Press, 2011.
French, Howard W. China’s Second Continent : How a Million Migrants Are Building a New Empire in Africa. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014.
Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011.
Lim, Jie-Hyun. “Victimhood Nationalism in Contested Memories-Mourning Nations and Global Accountability.” Memory in a Global Age : Discourses, Practices and Trajectories. Eds. Assmann, Aleida and Sebastian Conrad. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Mertha, Andrew C. Brothers in Arms : Chinese Aid to the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2014.
Russell, Stuart J., and Peter Norvig. Artificial Intelligence : A Modern Approach. Prentice Hall Series in Artificial Intelligence. 3rd ed., Global ed ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, 2016.
近藤大介『習近平と米中衝突 : 「中華帝国」2021年の野望』NHK出版, 2018.
川島真『中国のフロンティア : 揺れ動く境界から考える』岩波書店, 2017.
(12) (1970s-1990s) Long Democraticization II: Civic Activism in East Asia ; Low-intensity Warfare in Southeast Asia: terrorism, war on terror and securitization, transitional justice
1. East Asia and Southeast Asia since the 1990s.
A. The Third Wave of Democraticization
– South Korea: Massive student movement => the Seoul Olympic games => the leftist triumph => IMF => switching back and forth between the right and the left => mass movement and the fall of the incumbent president => the power of judiciary
– Taiwan : Anti-Kuomingtan (Nationalist Party) => Political ambivalence to China => Swing between Kuomingtang and Democratic Progressive Party
(South East Asia)
– The Philippines: Politics of mass mobilization, Anti-Marcos => Collapse => Oligarchy => Populism => Traditional Politicians => Duterte as leftist populist + anti-political correctness disciplinarian + Extrajudicial Killings
– Thailand: Democraticization => Taksin as a populist => Urban Progressives vs. More populous rural residents (too simplified) => cycle between democracy and military rule
– Indonesia: CEO type => Islamist => The daughter of the founding father (secular) => military man vs. bottom-up local politician => Democracy and decentralization => stable but lawless elements spreading towards localities.
B. Hot spots:
– Uyghurs and labor camps, Tibetans and touristification
– Nuclear North Korea
– Outer islands in Eastern Indonesia, Southern Philippines, Southen Thailand
– The Rohingya refugees from Myanmer
– Usually religious strife
A. In brief
– Beyond nations, ethnicities and religions
– A new name: Geno (ethnicity, tribe) + Cide (killing)
– Lemkin’s experience as a Polish Jew.
– Lemkin’s idea: setting up the universal standard, global from the start, Denmark was the first,
– 12 countries signed the treaty on genocide (Genocide Convention) in 1950
– Thorny issues:
a. How many people must be killed?
b. How do they deal with low level crimes (forced relocation, mass sterlization)?
c. Dividing issues. Indian killings in the US -(genocide but the statute of limitation applies), black slavery (not genocide for the white society tried to enable them to live by seprating the blacks from the whites.)
d. How far in the past should this be applied?
e. How constitutes a minority group? Excluding “culture” from the definition.
f. The issue of agitation
g. Immunity from Prosecutions
– Complex relations between “human rights” (universal declaration in 1948) and “genocide”
– Does the concept of “human rights” render “genocide” redundant and unnecessary?
– US ratification in 1988.
a. International NGOs
– Amnesty International (1961)
– Helsinki Watch (1978, later Human Rights Watch)
b. Contemporary issues in the 1960s and 70s.
– A sessionist movement in Biafra, Nigeria – 1 mil. people died.
c. Re-emergence in the 1990s
– Iraq (chemical weapons)
=> Major powers failed to intervene into genocide cases of the late 20th century.
C. Court Cases
– A case against Saddam Hussein (1990)
– Former Yugoslavia: From the Clinton Administration to the Bush Administration
– Rewand: prosecution specifically on mass rape.
– Cambodia: US government’s decision to prosecute – Yale University’s Cambodia Genocide Program – International pressure and Domestic process – Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
【Question】 In the next 10 to 20 years or so, do you think “genocide” will be a major international issue as in the 1990s?
3. Transitional Justice
A. Concept according to ICTJ
Transitional justice refers to the ways countries emerging from periods of conflict and repression address large-scale or systematic human rights violations so numerous and so serious that the normal justice system will not be able to provide an adequate response.
The aims of transitional justice will vary depending on the context but these features are constant: the recognition of the dignity of individuals, the redress and acknowledgment of violations; and the aim to prevent them happening again.
– Search and recognition for justice, compensation and/or reconciliation.
– Could be officially-endorsed judicial process or not.
B. Usual course
The establishment of a truth commission – research & hearing – the publication of a report – recourse to judiciary
C. Crtique to the judiciary
D. Four types (rought sketch) in the post-dictatorial phase
a. To apply the criminal laws established and used in the pre-dictatorial phase
b. To establish laws to prosecute (or deal with) former human rights violators.
c. To establish international criminal tribunals
d. To use traditional justice framework
e. No justice
a. & b. Chile
b. Argentina (one of the first cases): Victim’s groups and human rights NGOs pressure – Post-dictatorial government’s decision – rebellion by the military – the government’s decision not to prosecute them – ”Truth Commission” without punishment.
c. South Africa: Healing and Reconciliation (ubuntu)
c. Yugoslavia, Rewanda
e. El Salvador
Twist: Former Torturer in Argentina
E. Traditional Framework
a. The Solomon Islands:
Track 1: International NGOs like Oxfam – Est. of Truth and Reconcilation Commission – Difficulty due to male interviewers, reconciliation at national level. compensation scheme
Track 2: Crimes – Retaliation →Crimes – Inter-ethnic reconciliation – Women-to-women reconciliation meetings
Case 1: Guishi: Injustice – village elders hear plea but do not do anything – wait until the assilant confesses in ordinary conversation or in cursing
Case 2: Igenbe: Injustice – village elders make the accused swallow magic food- if innocent, nothing happens; if guilty, he will die of traffic accident or fall sick, or his cattles will get stolen.
Case 3: Durma: Injustice – village elders make the accused swallow magic food – if innocent, nothing happens; if guilty, the mouth becomes swollen. (In fact, the witch puts poison on the magic food for the one deemed to be the assilant).
【Question】Does transitional justice ever work? If so, why does it work in some cases, while they do not in other cases? Does transitional justice work when it is applied to international relations? How?
Hayner, Priscilla B., and Kofi A. Annan. Unspeakable Truths : Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions. 2nd ed ed. New York: Routledge, 2011.
Minow, Martha. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness : Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press, 1998.
Power, Samantha. A Problem from Hell : America and the Age of Genocide. London: Flamingo, 2003.
クロス京子『移行期正義と和解 : 規範の多系的伝播・受容過程』有信堂高文社, 2016.
細谷広美、 佐藤義明編『グローバル化する＜正義＞の人類学――国際社会における法形成とローカリティ』 昭和堂, 2019.