Japan in East Asia、後期特殊研究演習、専門英語

War and Sexual Violence in Historical Perspectives

This course examines two related issues. First, modern wars, especially those in the 20th century. Second, sexual violence. After the emergence of the “comfort women” issues, we can no longer consider sexual violence to be a regular, usual, but unimportant feature of war. Rather, we should regard this form of violence as an under-studied area of inquiry and as an issue so relevant today. I would like to emphasize that we take a historical perspective, meaning that we will separate our inquiry from the ongoing politics of memory. Since this politics is so important and so hotly debated, no matter how we talk about it, whatever we say is inevitably biased and self-serving. Instead, we will try to trace how sexual violence became perceived as so grave an issued that it had to be tried in court and justice had to be served. For this purpose, we will also examine the legal, social and military background behind sexual violence in different war situations.

1. Sep. 30 Guidance

[Theories]
2. Oct. 7 Sexual Violence and its varieties
Smith, Merril D. “Introduction,” Smith, Merril D., ed. Encyclopedia of Rape and Sexual Violence. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2018.

On Marital Rape:
Patel, Krina. “The Gap in Marital Rape Law in India: Advocating for Criminalization and Social Change.” Fordham International Law Journal 42 5 (2019): 1519.
Featherstone, Lisa. “‘That’s What Being a Woman Is For’: Opposition to Marital Rape Law Reform in Late Twentieth‐Century Australia.” Gender & History 29 1 (2017): 87-103.
Williamson, Adrian. “The Law and Politics of Marital Rape in England, 1945-1994.” Women’s History Review 26 3 (2017): 382-413.

Topics raised:
– Shaming, disgrace and community in novels involving sexual violence
(Coetzee, J. M. Disgrace. Penguin Books, 2005.)
– Race and sexual violence: Stereotyping the perpetrator and Lynching
(Allen, James. Without Sanctuary : Lynching Photography in America. Twin Palms, 2000.)
– Powerful men, sexual abuse and cover-up, and death by natural causes or suicide. Ex. Jeffry Epstein, Harvey Weinstein, Johnny Kitagawa
– Power and sexual intercourse between (male) officers and (female) subordinates in military
– The “vengeful women” narrative regarding marital rape laws across countries
– Internet/video games and sexual violence: lack of regulations

3. Oct. 21 Feminist International Relations I
Introduction and Chap 3, Enloe, Cynthia H. Maneuvers : The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.

On Susan Brownmiller’s Against Our Will:
Pistono, Stephen P. “Susan Brownmiller and the History of Rape.” Women’s Studies 14 3 (1988): 265.
Serisier, Tanya. “Speaking out against Rape: Feminist (Her) Stories and Anti-Rape Politics.” Lilith: A Feminist History Journal 16 (2007): 84-95.

4. Oct. 28 Feminist International Relations II
TBA, Sylvester, Christine. Critical Concepts in International Relations. 5 vols. Abingdon ; New York: Routledge, 2011.

[Sexual Violence in the 20th Century History]
5. Nov. 11 Wartime Rape in Historical Perspective
Donagan,Barbara. “Law, War, and Women in Seventeenth-Century England,” Heineman, Elizabeth D. Sexual Violence in Conflict Zones : From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
Inal, Tuba. “Wartime Rape,” Smith, Merril D. Encyclopedia of Rape. Greenwood Press, 2004.

6. Nov. 13 Empire and Sexual Violence
Chap. 2 “Assembling India: The Birth of SITA,” Legg, Stephen. Prostitution and the Ends of Empire : Scale, Governmentalities, and Interwar India. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014.

7. Nov. 18 “Comfort Women”
Various sections, Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Comfort women : sexual slavery in the Japanese military during World War II. Translated by Suzanne O’Brien. New York : Columbia University Press, 2000.

8. Nov. 25 Japanese Militarism and Sexual Violence
Taihei Okada, “Kempei’s Violence Revisited—The Cordova Incident and Its Place under the Japanese Occupation—”

9. Dec. 2 Occupation and Sexual Violence
Chap. 2 “Gendered Defeat,” Grossmann, Atina. Jews, Germans, and Allies : Close Encounters in Occupied Germany. Princeton University Press, 2007.

[Contemporary Issues]
10. Dec. 9 Legal Development
Chap 6, “Conclusions,” Inal, Tuba. Looting and Rape in Wartime : Law and Change in International Relations. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

11. Dec. 16 Wartime Sexual Violence in the 21st Century
Buss, Doris. “Seeing Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies: The Limits of Visibility.” Buss, Doris, et al., eds. Sexual Violence in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies: International Agendas and African Contexts. New York: Routledge, 2014.
【Term paper topic due】

12. Dec. 23 Wartime Sexual Violence in the 21st Century
TBA

13. Jan. 6 TBA

【Due date for Term Paper, TBA, probably at the end of January】